This article discuss New Regulations on Directors' Remuneration in quoted companies in England. Listed companies in England should comply with the Combined Code by which directors' remuneration is regulated. The Listing Rules 12.43A require compliance with this Code, but not all companies comply with it completely. The Directors' Remuneration Report Regulations 2002(SI 2002/1986)) and the Companies (Summary Financial Statement) Amendment Regulations 2002 (SI 2002/1780) were enacted in July 2002 and enforced as of August 2002. These regulations amend the Companies Act 1985 and related regulations about the Regulation of Directors' Remuneration in quoted companies in England. This article examines these regulations, especially members' votes on directors' remuneration reports at general meetings in quoted companies, and the remuneration committee, because the author thinks that these regulations provide many suggestions for the regulation of directors' remuneration in Japanese Company Law.
L'hypotheque est un droit reel, en quell sens l'hypotheque set-elle un droit reel ? Les doctrines sur la nature du droit reel d'hypotheque se divise en deux vues. On a dir, d'un cote, que l'hypotheque constitue demenbrement de la propriete aussi bien que l'usufruit, l'uage, l'habitation et les services fanciers. La propriete complete d'une chose, dit-on dans ce sens, est le droit reel le plus complet, le droit de disposer de cette chose de la maniere la plus absolue, par consequent d'en user, d'en jouir, de la detruire meme, ou d'acquerir d'autres objets en l'alienant. Or, si un droit reel particulier, quelle qu'en soit d'ailleurs la nature ou l'importance, s'etablit sur le meme objet au profit d'un autre que le proprietaire, il est evident que le droit de celui-ci ne subsiste plus dans toute sa plenitude, qu'une partie en a ete detacheea son detriment, et par suite, que la propriete a ete reelement demembree lorsque ce droit reel particulier en a ete retire. On a dit, d'un autre cote, gue tout droit reel de garantie, specialement L'hypotheque, apparait comme un droit reel etabli, pour ainsi dire, au second degre, et portant sur un autre droit reel. Voici deux objections qui nous arretent de sonsiderer l'hypotheque comme de veritables demembrements de la propriete. 1° Nous ne voyons pas que ces sortes de droits morcellent ou franctionnent le droit de propriete, mais il en entravent par la l'exercice bien pluto qu'il ne divise le droit lui-meme entre le proprietaire de l'immeuble et le creanc ier hypothecaire de l'immeuble et le creancier hypothecaire. 2° Et puis, l'hypotheque n'est pas un droit reel qui permettrait a son titulaire depuiser toute l'utilite d'une chose. A la difference du proprietaire, le creancier hypothecaire ne peut agir meteriellement sur la chose. L'hypotheque n'est done pas un demembrement du droit qu'elle greve, c'est une sorte de mise en gage de ce droit : il n'y a pas partage des attributes et des avantages qu'il confere. Comme l'dit crdessus, il me semble que la nature du droit reel d'hypotheque est un droit reel au second degre, c'est un droit portant sur le droit que le debiteur a sur la chose et qui est, la plus souvent, un droit de propriete. De ce point de vue, l'hypotheque est un droit deel, qui s'etablit sur le droit de propriete, qui permet au creancier, s'il n'est pas paye a l'echeance, de le faire vendre et de se payer le premier sur le prix. En ce sens, l'hypotheque est un droit reel, qui peut agir sur le droit de propriete en le droit de vente.
The 97st general meeting and synposium were held at Nihon University on Saturday November 30,2002. In the afternoon sessions of the synposium organized on the uniform theme "Law and Politics concerning Privacy Information" ,four panelists presented their study reports. Our collegue Prof. Tsuyoshi Hiramatsu (Kanseigakuin University) gave a report on some problems concerning the usage of Privacy Information, and Prof.Keigo Komamura (Hakuou University) gave a report on the relation of Privay Information and Constituion Modern. After their two reports, Prof. Toyohiko Ohashi (Shoubigakuen University) presented study report on the protection concerning Privacy Information in Authority Public, and Prof.Yasuyoshi Okada (Shizuoka University) presented study report on the situation of the protection in EU countries. After these reports,there were several questions and answers. The contents of those reports entrust to these Prof.'s report. This synposium was very siginificant meeting. We thank for Prof.s and our collegues.
1 Introduction 2 Responsibility for Representing Others by Names 3 Responsibility for Representing Others by Names, Addresses, Telephonenumbers and Permanent Domiciles etc. 4 Responsibility for Representing Others by the Place of Employment, Group or Organization concerned etc. 5 Responsibility for one's Criticism or defamatory Expression on the Forum of Internet. 6 Conclusion
I Privacy and Constitutionalism (1) Privacy not as a Positive Law - Does it Matter? (2) Privacy in Classic and New Formula - From "Right to be Let Alone" to "Control over Personal Information" (3) Privacy as a Project to Rebuild Public/Private Dichotomy (4) Privacy and Personal Information II Private and Public (1) Right to Privacy Protects Personal Interest (2) Right to Privacy Provides an Essential Foundation to Justify Government III Some Implications
1. While public corporations have much influence on daily lives and economic activities of people, the problem of personal data protection by the public corporations has not sufficiently researched and has been overlooked. 2. Laws and regulation define how national and local governments manage personal data they retain. However, such laws and definitions are not taken effect on the public corporations. 3. The government submitted the Personal Data Protection Bill in thie session of the Diet. 4. This paper describes the informatization of the public corporations and the actual management of personal data the public corporations retain, and makes some comments on the Bill submitted by the government.
1 Preface 2 Recommendation of the Council of OECD concerning the Protection of Personal Data (1) The Signification and the Structure of Recommendation (2) Eight Principles (3) Aim of Recommendation 3 Directive 95/46/EC concerning the Protection of Personal Data (1) Background (2) Purpose of the Directive (3) Contents of the Directive (4) Clause concerning Third Countries and Derogations 4 Safe Harbor Method (1) Outline (2) Safe Harbor Agreement (3) Safe Harbor Seven Principles (4) Merits and Demerits for U.S.A. 5 Standard Contractual Clauses Method (1) Outline (2) Standard Contractual Clauses (3) Contents of Standard Contractual Clauses 6 Influences to Japan and the Future 7 Conclusion
In recent years, as information technologies develop, the movement toward constructing the electronic government (e-government) is becoming active. By e-governments, we can increase efficiency of administration and observe the action of administration more easily. And as the result, it is said that administrative action of local autonomies will be more active and democratic. The Japanese government announced "The E-japan Strategy" and "The E-japan Strategy 2002". They aimed to realize almost all administrative procedure can be followed on-line by 2003, not only about the central government, but also all of the local autonomies. Certainly, e-government may have many useful fields, but many problems also exist. Particularly, according to the investigation by Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications, most local government is not so eager for constructing e-government. It is because of the talented people, or capacity of local autonomies. So, it can be said hasty to construct e-government without taking some measures to reinforce capacity of local autonomies, such as consolidation of municipalities.
Die Erkundigung durch die Rechtsanwaltskammer ist zur Sammlung der Tatsachen und der Beweisen, die fur den beauftragten Prozessfall benotigt sind, benutzt. Zwar gibt es keine gesetzliche Regelung aber die h.M. nimmt an, dass die erkundigte Behorde oder sonstige offentliche Stelle die Erteilung der benotigten Informationen verpflichtet sind. Aber es gibt viele Falle, in denen die erkundigte Behorde usw. die Erteilung der Information verweigern, da es keine Sanktionsregelungen uber die Verweigerung gibt. Aber wenn man die Informationserteilungspflicht von den Behorden usw. annimmt, ist die Erteilungsverweigerung ohne besondere Grunde nicht erlaubt. Deshalb ist es notig, dass man die Verweigerungsgrenze klarmacht, um die glatte Anwendung der Erkundigung herbeizufuhren. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag erortere ich die Begrenzung der Verweigerungsbefugnis der erkundigten Behorden usw. Dabei habe ich als Vergleichsgegenstande die Aussageverweigerungsgrunde des Zeugen (§196, 197 jap. ZPO) und die Ausnahmeregelung von der Vorlageanordnung der Schriftsatze(§220 Nr.4, a,b,c,d,e) erortert.
Kagawa Toyohiko advanced his pacifist ideas in the period between World War I and II as the following shows: 1. He pursued peace with a long-term vision. 2. He believed in human reason. At the same time, he believed that people's consciousness must be advanced by education. 3. He always connected his ideas of pacifism to economics. He advocated the reform of the League of Nations and the construction of cooperative worldwide trade system, that is, "Brotherhood Economics". These Kagawa's ideas are integrated into the movement of "Kami no Kuni" (the Kingdom of God) which he aimed to construct finally. Kagawa met Nitobe for the first time at the office of the LN in Geneva in 1925. Later they worked together to establish the Tokyo Medical Cooperative Society. The spirit of their movements was based on nation-wide cooperation that they fostered to build the ideal society by appealing to people's conscious awareness. Their spirit came out in the movement of the reform of the Japan economy and people's consciousness at the beginning of the Showa Era.
Jesse Helms(Chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations) severely poited out that the United States did not ask for or receive the approval of the United Nations to legitimize its actions. The reason why he won't accept the secretary-generals claim that the United Nations is the sole source of legitimacy on the use of force in the world is that the League of Nations did not defeat Hitler nor did it win Cold War by the United Nations. He adds that it is a fanciful notion that free peoples need to seek the approval of an international body, a quarter of whose members are totalitarian dictaterships. It is quite true that the Security Council as the central authority of an international organization faces many difficulties in the reform of the United Nations. This paper chronorogically covers the recent movement of the reform of the Security Council since about 1990 and analizes the reason Japan fails to win the race of the permanent menberships in the Security Council. It also shows that whether or not Japan as the permanent membaers of the Security Council, can bear a responsibility both to uphold the principles of the U. N. Charter and to give her full support to the organizations action to maintain international peace and security. Finally, I touched upon my own ideas for the realization of the Security Council reform which is essential in order for the U. N. Organization to tackle the challenges successfully from the side of Japan. Next year, the debate on the Security Coucil reform will enter its tenth year. I would like to ask for the elimination of the enemy-state clauses, remaining in the U. N. Charter. I do hope Japan will soon have a permanent seat and request the Security Council to continue to reform itself to respond to new situations by reviewing its function.
Operating under the principle of "checks and balances" between the legislative and the executive branches, the U.S. Congress possesses a considerable amount of power in foreign and trade policy-making process. In particular, Congress has wielded a great deal of influence over the President's trade policy, of which such congressional power has been guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution which reads: "To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes." (Article 1, Section 8). This article will examine the U.S.-China relations over the Most Favored Nation (MFN)status from 1989 to 1994, from the aspect of "checks and balances" between President and Congress. In the immediate aftermath of the Tiananmen incident in June 1989, Congress applied heavy pressure on the President to publicly condemn China for its human rights abuse. With the Congress explicitly linking human rights with the renewal of China's MFN status,the issue of MFN became a contentious trade issue between the U.S. and Chinese governments in the early 1990s. The congressional actions from 1989 to 1994 can be best understood in the following four categories: Congress-Bush conflict over sanctions against China (1989-90); the linkage of the MFN and human rights (1990-1991); the presidential election and MFN as an election issue (1992); the MFN issue under the Clinton administration (1993-94). I argue that President Bush successfully negotiated with China by placing himself between China and Congress, while President Clinton lost his diplomatic maneuver-ability vis-a-vis China by overemphasizing human rights issue. Bush exerted strong pressure on China on the diplomatic front, while, on the domestic front, he continually vetoed legislations on Chinese human rights issue passed by Congress. On the other hand, Clinton's decision to adopt the Democratic Congress' position on MFN created a condition where the mechanism of "checks and balances" no longer functioned properly.
The contents: Introduction - the outline of crisis of the British Consevative Party on statecraft 1. The Corn Laws and a split in the Conservative Party (1846) 2. A History of Conservative politics and statecraft i) the Tamworth Manifesto and Robert Peel's domestic statecraft ii) Crystal Palace speech and Benjamin Disraeli iii) the significance of Butler's Industrial Charter Conclusion
In dieser Abhandlung lasst sich sogennante neue Zivilgesellschaft und Engagement und zwar besonders in Deutschlnad behandeln. Im 2. Abschnitt wird der Unterschied zwischen Burgerliche Gesellschaft und Zivilgesellschaft beschrieben. Die Burgerliche Gesellschaft wird als eine Wirtschaftsgesellschaft begreifen. Was wichtig hier ist der Zusammenhang zwischen Staat und Burgerliche Gesellschaft oder Zivilgesellschaft.Nahmlich muss man auf jeder Zeit bemerken, ob sie abhangig von ihm ist oder nicht. Im 3. Abschnitt lasst sich betrachten, was die neue Zivilgesellschaft ist, und im 4. Abschnitt behandle ich die Vieldeutigkeit der Zivilgesellschft. Denn spricht man von Zivilgesellschaft und Engagement normalerweise in Deutschland mit Beziehung auf die neue soziale Bewegung, die sich mit vielen verschiedenen Werten verknupfen konnte. Daraus kommt eine Idee, dass Zivilgesellschaft als ein Ziel der Demokratie sei. Im 5. Abschnitt sehe ich jene Gefahr durch, kritisierte ich letztlich die Moglichkeit der Zivilgesellschaft, die zurzeit als ob entpolitisierender Begriff diskutiert wird.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the accident responsibility of a social welfare institution. Social welfare study is beginning to examine the prevention example about the accident. But Judicial precedents are not interested in Social welfare study. Precedents should be used more effectively in the prevention of the accidents.