There has been an increasingly high social recognition of child abuse since the Child Abuse Prevention Act of 2000 went into effect. On the other hand, it has been indicated that there are still many serious child abuse case including the cases causing to death. Child abuse is still a crucial social problem, which should be solved urgently because of the impact of the above mentioned problem. Because of such a crucial social situation as the above mentioned, the Child Abuse Prevention Act was revised in part on April 14, 2004. The revised parts of the new act are the followings! to reinforce the function of preventing child abuse, to clarify of the definition of child abuse, to strengthen the function of obligation responsibility of the national government as well as local governments, to enlarge the sphere of information obligation, and to maintain relevant rules for the protection of children and their security. Upon the revision of the Child Abuse Prevention Act, there were many provisional problems. That is, most debated issue of the Child Abuse Prevention Act was of an on-the-spot investigation. The article 10 of the Child Abuse Prevention Act provides that a chief staff at the child consultation center must demand police officers to participate in a site which should be investigated by the workers of the child consultation centers, if necessary to do so. This paper is written on the basis of the Japanese Diet journal on which I have found various opinions that are collected through interviews and discussions with the Diet members as well as many bureaucrats of the Police Department and the Minister of Justice regarding how police assistance for an on-the-spot investigation should be.
Ever since the first Expo held in London, England, 1851, Expo has provided a strong reflection of the international relationships of its time. Usually, it is the culture presented at Expo that is regarded, but this paper will look further and consider the history of international relationships that Expo demonstrates, focusing on the Expo of 1904 held in St. Louis of the United States of America, which occurred during the time of the Russo-Japanese War. Using information gathered from the St. Louis public library, Japanese diplomatic data, and other various resources, this paper will analyze aspects of the United States of America, the country in which the Expo of 1904 was held; Japan, who joined the Expo in an effort to gain favorable public opinion from the American people! China, who, for the first time, formally sent an Imperial family member as a delegate! and Russia, whose government decided to not participate. This paper will consider the diplomatic strategies of these four countries, clarifying the influence that Expo has had on international relationships. A Japanese diplomat and a public relations representative for the Imperial family who visited the Expo in St. Louis announced that Japan was following Western countries by adapting to and introducing systems of modernization, which clearly showed that Japan had different policies compared with China, Asia's great nation. America overwhelmed the other countries with a display of great technical skill and power, and with its "Philippine Village" exhibit appealed to justify America's policy of colonization. On the other hand, a display that arrived late and conflicts experienced between the members of the exhibition company attested to Russia's domestic, political, and economic confusion and disorder to the world.
Although the environment of care should be improved by laws, such as 'Pflegeversicherung' and 'Low of Prevention of Elder-Abuse,' murder cases relating to care, on the contrary, have been increasing all over the entire country. The examination of these murder cases shows that there would have been a bighpossibility to have prevented them if the medical staff and the welfare staff had cooperated closely with each other. The role of 'the special member,' who supports care, is very important from the point of view that his/her judgment is deeply concerned with the life of the family who cares for older family members. And the role of the family is also important at the place of medical treatment and welfare. The family itself should realize that the subject of care is a family member, and more attention should be paid on how medical treatment and welfare can support the family. On the other hand, in many trials, the public prosecutor and the lawyer argueonly about what kind of sentence should be given to the defendant, without investigating the background and the true nature of the incident: why the family caretaker has committed homicide. This paper examines the importance of cooperation at the actual care site between the persons concerned in the field of medical treatment and welfare, and the Administration of Justice, focusing on the trial of the murder case which is relating to care, where the writer has attended.
We have introduced into Japan the legal system of Enduring Powers of Attorney commonly found in common-law countries (especially, UK) as the contractual form of adult guardianship. The concept of "self-decision" is highly recognized to be fundamental in both systems. However, in our society, the idea of "best interest" has been interpreted according to the "objective" standard, that is, what to be done is decided by the people who have been around the principal and who have cared for her/him. It is more than a mere coincidence that they sometimes can be (and very often are) chosen as attorneys for the principal. It is true that informal decision-makers such as families, close friends, and relatives are normally those who know best about the principal and who care most about her/him, whether or not they are legally appointed as attorneys. However, such practical situation gives rise to certain conflicts. Theoretically, the view of other people should be separated from the view of the principal, which reflects the "autonomy" model of the enduring attorneyship rather than the "paternalism" model. Furthermore, the "paternalism" model is quite often mingled with the "collectivism" model in Japanese society, that is, the bonds of family communities have the paramount value. Respect for "best interest", as a subjective standard, practically provides effective protection from potential abuses, which not only includes intentional but also un-intentional (innocent) deviation from the view of the principal. The recent law reform in the UK demonstrates a mechanism whereby every individual is expected to participate in building up the environment of "best interest", while maintaining good relationships with those close to him/her.
Now lots of North Korean Refugees have taken into main China and the other South East Asia countries. They are "hidden refugees" because any countries dosen't have any accurate policiy to protect them. No countriy has recognized they are refugees in the context of international law. Especially, main China which should protect them doesn't have any policiy for the North Korean refugee, and rather main China has the policy to have deported them back enforcedly to North Korea. It is very clear that they would be enforced into secret gulag and punished. North Korea and China have invoded the human right of North Korean refugees. So, some NPO have the plan to construct the shelter for North Korean refugees in Mongolia with the eye-masked permission by Mongolia government. This plan means that "hidden refugees" will be put on the surface in international communities. This plan has the possibility of conflict with the other counties, which have the policy to "protect the increase of refugees". But this plan has produced by the necessity of the security of human right of North Korean refugees. This thesis seeks the significance of the construction of the shelter for North Korean refugees in Mongolia under these conditions. It is the maneuver of Mongolia that is not only to protect them in order to get the international positioning in East Asia but also to use these hidden refugees for its national interest. This aspect shows us that the hidden refugees are not the burden but the factor of getting the national interest for the protecting countries.
The Financial Instruments and Exchange Law, that amended the Securities and Exchange Law, established on June 7, 2006. It regulates a wide range of financial instruments/services and provides an investor protection/broker-dealer regulation by unifying many laws, because it referred to the UK's Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. It will cause a big impact on financial market regulations in the future, for the reason that it is providing new regulations (e.g., comprehensive definition and new disclosure scheme according to the definition). But it is not clear that the law perfectly corresponds to the new financial instruments/services, especially Structured Bonds (e.g., Exchangeable Bonds, Moving Strike Convertible Bonds). For example, whether the disclosure about EB is limited to the originator or also applies to the other corporations. In addition, many other problems about Structured Bonds (e.g., limits of government ordinance/scope of disclosure/relation with corporate law) remain. However the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law is regarded as a step forward an establishment of the Japanese Financial Services Law. Therefore, I consider that those problems should be settled in the future.
The Treatment and Probation Law for Individual Committing Grave Act under Insanity (Treatment and Probation Law) was passed in 2003 and became in effect in 2005. This legislation aims at preventing the future risk of committing similar acts by involuntarily providing hospital or community psychiatric treatment for individuals who have committed felony while under insanity. The public prosecutor can require the court to examine such a person either before indictment or after the court decision wich found not guilty for reason of insanity whether he/she should be treated under the new law. From the perspective of due process, there are two issues that merit comments. Firstly, the person who has not been prosecuted is examined usually by a single judge for fact finding. This is in contrast to the normal and common criminal proceedings where three judges are required to participate in judgment. Judgment by multiple judges should be considered in the future amendment. Secondly, because of difficulty of predicting the future dangerous act in an annual basis, the requirement of the commitment should be regarded as void for vagueness. The focus of the goal of service provision should be shifted from the prevention of dangerous act to the prevention of relapse that is likely to reduce the risk of recommitment.
Although Harold D. Lass well is the one of the fathers of modern politics, the study of his political theory is not enough to be called systematic even today. This is because, I suppose, his rapidly moving thought prevents us from taking his theory systematically. Especially, his view of elite shows such a change prominently. Threfore, in this article, in addition to reviewing the reason why Lasswell adopted the elitism in his early period, I analyzed Lasswell's view of elite in his early period in detail. As the result, we could understand that Lasswell takes the elite as the few who get the most of any value (deference, income, safe, and so on) and, hence, are influential. Then, I pointed out that his definition of elite entailed a discrepancy in reference to the value "safe", and explained the reason why this happened. I believe, this article would give us a clue to grasp the meaning of the start point of Lasswell's political theory and his theoretical basis that we may understand how it has changed gradually in his subsequent periods.
The Easement is a right attached to one particular piece of land which allows the owner of the land (the dominant owner) either to use the land of another person (the servient owner)in a particular manner. And an easement attached to access a road is the easement of access. Moreover, if the easement of access is trespassed quare clausum fregit by a trespasser, it has the property right that is the exclusion for trespasser. In this case, who has its right and who pays the expense to the exclusion for the trespasser. That is to say, it is problem that the dominant owner excluds the trespasser at the expense of the owner, or the servient owner. This paper describes the easements of access which is trespassed quare clausum fregit by trespasser and concerning with the property right that is the exclusion of the trespasser.
It is created through this report at the same period and comparatively looks back toward L. George Paik (1895-1985) and Shigeru Nanbara (1889-1974) who an intellectual of a representative of the Korea and Japan which played in an active part through the round back, achievements of these two thought before the war from a field of vision. I stand in the situation where they closely resembled in any kind of form and consider to whether they were going to put thought of enlightenment of Western into an educational idea while considering development and the succession of "traditional culture" in the form that how it was to be concreted. L. George Paik (1895 - 1985) achieved "academic prosperity" by planning an academic interchange with the world and considered "pragmatism" to tie it to a race and development of the human to be a key most. A general idea of "pragmatism" in his thought bears fruit to real various systems and reformation. In addition, another central thought of L. George Paik was "a traditional culture". I can gather it up for "pragmatism", "self-determination", three flows of "idealism" when I arrange his character on thought. "The pragmatism" that I emphasized most is connected with realization of "education of utilitarianism" of Westen Europe. "The pragmatism" which he emphasized most is connected with realization of "education of utilitarianism" of John Dewey. On the other hand, Shigeru Nanbara (1889-1974) connects it with Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Immanuel Kant about "a culture" role and gathers it up. Nanbara laid this "culture" in basics idea of education and emphasized "an ethics". And it was "a mission" as an intellectual that they regarded as important as well as "tradition" and "history recognition". They were intellectuals together, and it was a Christian. Academic recognition in them is formed while being affected by Christianity. The core of social cultural contribution by them was logic constitution based on "the history" and "tradition". The times and a difference by the local situation exist between both, but I did a systematization of "culture" based on "tradition", and there is a common point. They rebuilt a nation through scholarships and thoughts and were going to build the new postwar system through educational system reformation. In addition, they achieved a mission of "social service" through education led by a university. It is thought that I was going to let a right "utility" by an intellectual form at the same time they emphasize pragmatism to realize such an intellectual intentioned, and to pursue "utilitarianism".
Im Mittelpunkt des osterreichischen Bundesverfassungsrechts steht das Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz, zu den das Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz, "Gesetz vom 1. Oktober 1920, womit die Republik Osterreich als Bundesstaats einrichtet wird" (BGB1 1920/1), in den Jahren 1925 und 1929 durch zwei umfassungreiche Bundesverfassungsnovellen geandert wurde und dessen Titel das "Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz in der Fassung von 1929" ist. Eine grosse und formelle Eigenart des osterreichschen Bundesverfassungsrechts ist, daB das hat viele Rechtsquellen, die die Bundes-verfassung(B-VG) als eine Rechtsquelle des Bunderverfassungsrecht, das Bundesverfassungsgesetz(BVG), einzelne Bstimmungen eines Gesetzes als Verfassungsbestimmungen, Staatsvertrage in Verfasssunsgrang und einzelne Verfassungsbsetimmungen in Staatsvertragen sind. Zur das Verfassungsgesetz gehort das Staatsgrundgesetz vom 21. Dezember 1867, uber die allgemeinen Rechte der Staatsburger fur die im Reichsrate vertretenen Konigreiche und Lander welches in Kraft gesetzt worden ist. Und dieses Staatsgrundgesetz gilt heute noch als ein Bundesverfassungsgesetz. In dieser Abhandlung wurde ich uber die Rechtsquellen als die Eingenart der osterreichischen Bundesverfassung und eine Seite der Bundesverfassungsgeschichte betrachten.
In England and Wales, "parole" is defined as any system of early release from prison which is discretionary, with the decision whether or not to release being made after commencement of the prison sentence. It is considered that parole is an available system for solving the problem about the over-crowding in prison or the treatment of persons released from prisons in community. So, the reactivation of the practice of parole is profitable for the future treatment of persons offending, sentenced, and treated in or backed to communities. This article outlines the existing state of the practice of the parole system in Japan, issues the problems of it, and considers a means to solve problems above through examining the practice and a new trend of the parole system, especially the system for the persons sentenced life-sentence in England and Wales as a material for fumbling. It is considered that, in Japan, the parole system is not applying successful, because of the insufficiency of itself due to the shortage of revenue or probation officers. In turn, the system for the treatment of criminals in community as aftercare of released for parole, or community-based treatment in Japan is being made preparations. The practice and a new trend of the parole system in England and Wales as a material for fumbling are profitable for the development of these practices in Japan, when the parole system is combined with the programs for rehabilitation of persons to parole such as in the new trend above in England and Wales.
Seit April 2004 hat Japan das akademisches Bildungssystem fur Richter, Staats-und Rechtsanwalte weitgehend geandert und es nach dem amerikanischen Modell der Law School umgebildet. Das spiegelt die Absicht der Regierung wider, eine grosse Anzahl von Juristen mit verschiedenen beruflichen Hintergrunden zu schaffen. Der Anlass zu dieser Entscheidung ist-wie allgemein bekannt-das jungste Anwachsen internationaler Streitfa lle unter anderem mit den Vereinigten Staaten. Ich mochte hiermit einen der Hintergrunde der Justizreform aufzeigen, na mlich daB die Rechtsfakultat der Universitat bisher nur unzureichend an der Ausbildung der Juristen teilgenommen hat, und damit auch die abweichende Einstellung Japans von der der Bundesrepublik darstellen. In BRD ist es selbstverstandlich, dass die Hochschule eine Anstalt ist, die Fachleute ausbildet. Von Studenten an der Rechtsfakultat wird erwartet, entweder Beamter oder Jurist, d.h. Fachmann zu werden. Bei uns in Japan ist die Situation ein bisschen anderes. In Japan haben die Jura-Studenten manchmal kein klares Studienziel. Bei uns gibt es den Spruch im Volksmund, wer keine klare Vorstellung von seinem zukunftigen Beruf habe, solle an der Rechtsfakultat studieren, weil das Jura-Studium fur verschiedene Berufe verwendbar ist. Wer die schwierige Examenshurde zum Universitatseintritt einmal genommen hat, kann-zumindest bei angesehenen Universitaten-darauf bauen, dass seine spatere Berufslaufbahn gesichert ist. Wenn man den ganzen Aufnahme-Examenstress gut uberstanden hat, kann man seine 8 Semester bis zum Berufseintritt in der Regel verhaltnismassig gemutlich abstudieren. Die Rangordnung japanischer Universitaten spiegelt sich unter anderem auch im Schwierigkeitsgrad ihrer Eintrittsexamen wider. Insgesamt war die Univers itatsbildung meist nur ein Mittel, um den Titel bzw. das Diplom der angesehen Universitat zu bekommen. Die offentliche Meinung verhielt sich gleichgultig gegen den Inhalt der Universitatsbildung besonders in Bezug auf das Studium der Philologie, Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften. Um in der Wirtschaft eine Arbeitsstelle zu finden, war es weniger wichtig, was man studiert hatte, als vielmehr einfach nur dass man studiert hatte. Und wahrend des anhaltenden Wirtschaftsbooms wurde sogar behauptet, dass solch eine Universitatsbildung einer der Grunde des japanischen Wirtschaftswachstum ware. Weil die Studenten kein Selbstbewusstsein als Fachmann haben, konnen sie auf Konjunkturschwankungen flexibel reagieren und ihre Fachgebiete d mentsprechend verandern. Damit konnte Japan die Zunahme der Arbeitslosigkeit wahrend der Konjunkturflaute vermindern. Ob diese Behauptung richtig oder falsch ist, darauf mochte ich hier nicht naher eingehen. Als Grund fur das Zustandekommen eines solchen Jura-Studiums konnen wir vielleicht zwei Dinge anfuhren. Ein Grund dafur ist ein historischer Anlass. Seit der Offnung Japans zur Aufienwelt im Jahre 1868 wurden namlich Talente mit akademischer Bildung sehr hoch geschatzt, um mit dem Westen gleichziehen zu konnen. Als Nebenwirkung dessen entstand eine Gesellschaft mit elitarer Herrschaftsstruktur, und der Titel eines akademischen Grades war das entscheidende Kriterium fur die eigenen Fahigkeiten geworden. Auch nach dem Kriege wollten Eltern der Vorkriegsgeneration ihre Kinder eine Universitatsbildung aufnehmen lassen, aber eher um den Titel eines akademischen Grades zu bekommen als bestimmte Fachkenntnisse zu erwerben. Als einen weiteren Grund fur diese Universitatsbildung kann ich noch den Einfluss der Religion nennen. Im Christentum wird gelehrt, dass das Wahrheit ist, was in der Bibel gepredigt worden ist. Und weil die Wahrheit durch die Vernunft des Menschen erkannt wird, wurde die Wahrheit erkennende Vernunft hoch geschatzt. Das Gefuhl sollte durch die Vernunft unterdruckt werden, um die Wahrheit zu erkennen. Die Universitat wurde in diesem Sinne als Anstalt errichtet, in der man die Wahrheit
This thesis is about the educational system of Law and Public Administration in Canada, using the University of Victoria(UVic) as an example. In my opinion, distinctive features at UVic educational system are the Co-operative Education and the Concurrent LL.B./M.P.A. Degree Program. Co-operative Education: ・Since the mid-1970's UVic Co-op has grown to become the third largest Co-op in Canada. We've built our success on personalized service, high quality work opportunities, and leading-edge technology. ・The goal of the UVic Co-op Program is to produce high-calibre graduates who are better prepared to pursue productive careers. Successful Co-op graduates complete a standard academic degree program, as well as several Co-op work terms in jobs related to their degree program. ・Co-operative Education, or Co-op, is an integrated approach to higher education that enables bright, highly motivated students to alternate academic terms with paid, relevant work experience in their chosen field. ・The practical experience gained on these work terms is an integral part of the student's education. The term "Co-operative Education" emphasizes the relationship between the employer, the student and the University of Victoria. Concurrent LL.B./M.P.A. Degree Program: ・Students who apply and are accepted into both the Faculty of Law LL.B. and the School of Public Administration M.P.A. programs may earn both degrees concurrently with modified requirements for each. Undertaken separately, the two degrees normally require five years of study, whereas the concurrent degrees may be completed in four years. ・The first year of the program is devoted entirely to the first year law curriculum. The second year of the program requires the completion of the public administration foundation courses in combination with law courses if the student wishes. The remaining two years entail the completion of all other law and public administration course requirements