This paper clarifies political trends of the Echizen clan before and after the restoration of the Imperial rule. Research on the Echizen clan during the relevant period has focused on the discussion of the political situation that required the central government to pay attention to the political process of overthrow of the government, and to movements seeking restoration of Tosa clan administration. For that reason, there has been a blurring between the research objects and the political analysis, and intermittent political analysis has left many ambiguities and blank areas. Through use of a continuous political analysis of the relevant period, this paper clarifies the background circumstances regarding Shungaku's decision to return home and to once again go to Kyoto, and also the information gathering, the sense of disappointment, and his consciousness of being a daimyo related to the Tokugawas that became factors prescribing later actions. Moreover, regarding the evaluation of previous research work in "Bokansya", it is possible to express an opinion regarding the later transition to political participation in the central government and to assess its importance.
Der abgehaltene europaische Rat macht vom Ende von diesem Jahr am Ende von letzt Jahr ein Projekt von der Lissabon Vertrag Wirkung. Davon wurde es dieses Jura der EU-Recht Reihenfolge unter diesem Vertrag sehr wahrscheinlich, kam vor. Aber revidiert dieser Vertrag in EU einen bestehenden grundlegenden Vertrag. Deshalb ist es keine Sache, die es ersetzt. Deshalb ist es unter Lissabon Vertrag schwierig fur Verbindungen mit der Verfassungsrecht in EU-Mitglieder Staaten und der EU-Recht, die es mit einem Wort gerufen werden sollten, wie ist es. Deshalb will ich unter dem Lissabon Vertrag System einige Probleme der EU-Recht aufklaren. Au sserdem uber dem Trend der globalen Gemeinde und einem Trend von EU will ich etwas Art von Vorschlagen vom Standpunkt der Gesetzesaufrechterhaltung einer Gerichtsbarkeitsgrenze bekommen, schaffte fur besonders gewohnlichen Gewinn. Inhalt 1. Anfangs 2. Die Entwicklung des internationalen Verbindungen-Gesetzes 3. Die Zusammenfassung des Lissabon Vertrages 4. Gesetzlicher Charakter der EU-Recht and das Lissabon Vertrag 5. EU-Gerichtsbarkeit und Verfassungslandgerichtsbarkeit 6. schlusswort
A newly discharged employee, who may have been fired for any reason or for no reason at all, faces unemployment. This discharged employee is facing a great personal and professional crisis, but even this situation can be made worse. Indeed, it is common for an employer to exacerbate the employee's position by requiring him to agree to a new non-competition clause. However, the question remains as to whether it is reasonable to enforce a covenant not to compete when an employee is terminated. This paper studies the approaches courts have utilized in judging the enforceability of restrictive covenants in involuntary discharge cases in the United States. Jurisdictional approaches in discharge non-competition cases may generally be described as falling into one of three doctrinal categories: covenants are per se unenforceble when the employee has been discharged without cause; covenants are enforceble without regard for the cause of termination; or covenants are presumptively unenforceable but the employer may rebut the presumption. Under this unsettled doctrine, however, in examining covenants not to compete in the context of an involuntary termination, courts should employ a balancing of the equities approach to give consideration to the nature of the discharge in conjunction with all other relevant factors. As a result, it is unreasonable as a matter of law to permit the employer to terminate the employee and prevent him from working in his chosen profession. Post-involuntary termination covenants not to compete are inherently unconscionable because there is enormous inequality in the bargaining power of the parties, and because the ensuing contract terms are disproportionally favorable to the employer. Lastly, I conclude that an employee who is terminated without cause is not bound by a non-competition clause in Japan.
This paper examines the urban pension system and its reform in modern China. Modern Chinese economic history is divided into three periods: (1) the period of planned economy, (2) the coexisting period of planned economy and market economy, and (3) the period of real market economy. Through analysis of the urban pension system during these periods, we investigate the transition of pension system reform in modern China. In particular, the Economic Reform and Open-door Policy and the population aging had a big influence on China's pension system. For instance, urban workers enjoyed the pension system containing no individual payments, but it has been reformed into the new system including individual payments since the beginning of the economic reform and open-door policy. This paper also analyzes the problems that China's current pension system faces. Notwithstanding a series of reforms, China's pension system has been consistently problematic. Changes in the environment that surrounds the pension system and a series of pension reforms itself continually give rise to various problems. Especially the "empty account" problem caused by a partial introduction of the reserve financing plan is serious now.
In this article, I will consider the modernization process of police system both in Japan and China from the end of 19th century to the early 20th century by focusing on the treatment of criminals who belong to the lower class in the society. Before the modernization of police system, the ex-convicts supported the investigation activities, and its legacy seems to be able to observe as a part of tradition in contemporary police system in two countries. Especially in China, however, as the gap both in economy and in income grow wider domestically, the relations between the power and the people in the lower class in Chinese society became weakened. Recent increases of rebellions in Chinese local area may represent dissatisfaction of the lower class people over the weakening traditional ties.
After the Manchurian Incident, the Japan-Manchukuo bloc theory aiming at a comprehensive cooperative relation between the countries over military affairs and economy, etc. was being argued and policized in Japan as a diplomatic theory plan. Ryutaro Nagai, a pre-war politician, was a typical character who had advocated the diplomatic design at this time. Nagai changed the appeasing posture to China with the Manchurian Incident and acknowledged the incident, and advocated the bloc theory and promoted the realization as a minister for the Colonial Department. When Nagai's Japan-Manchukuo bloc theory was considered, there was a consciousness that Japan and Manchukuo had various common denominators, and there was an affinity among the countries of same "Asia" while at the same time there was a hostile consciousness to Europe and America, and the white races that existed there. Moreover, although Nagai developed the Manchukuo development theory which is also a part of a Japan-Manchukuo bloc, one of the purposes of this was that he was improving the invitation conditions on which China was added to a Japan-Manchukuo bloc, and realizing Japan-Manchukuo-China bloc organization. Nagai held an idea that the outlook on the world that Japan and China were countries where various common denominators existed, and that cooperating as the same Asia and nonwhite races was inevitable.
The primary concern of this paper is to clarify about the faith of Shin Buddhism in the early period of the modern times. I clarify a position of Chiku who wrote "Kozenji Kyogyoji Kajogaki no Habun". This is an article for people who are interested in the history of Shin Buddhism. The conclusions are as follows: 1. "Anjinketujosyo" had a strong influence in the early period of the modern times, 2. During that period, thought of "Bonno-soku-bodai" spread out and "Muk imyo-anjin" was produced. 3. It spread over Kawachi and Settsu. 4. Chiku is faithful to the teachings of Rennyo and advanced "Itinenkimyo" 5. It is important to consider from both sides of the administrator and the people.
In the United States, the Brandenburg test has been applied to the incitement of the illegal action in the physical world. In this paper, the author asks whether this Brandenburg test is applicable in the internet. Cyberspace has several special factors which do not exist in the physical world. Everyone can be the speaker at a cheap price. The message is sent all over the world instantly. This convenient tool has dark sides such as email bombs, and intimidation homepages. In the internet age, we need to ask the question whether the Brandenburg test is modified or abolished totally in this information society because of these special features of the internet. There are various tools to send messages via internet such as e-mail, homepage, blog, newsletter, mailing list, etc. In this paper, the author focuses just on the expression opened to the public. The author believes that before seeing the internet problem, it is necessary for us to see the origin and applicability of the Brandenburg test in the physical world. The Brandenburg test is not a given. Its origin is clear and the present danger test shaped in common law. In the conclusion, the author suggests that the Brandenburg test has some future since it has been used to protect the opinion of the minority in the real world. However, this test was used mostly in the peaceful period. We need to be vigilant to see this test for internet society.
In Japan ist der Unterschied zwischen Ausschlussfrist und Verjahrung begrifflich im Gesetz nicht vorgeschrieben. Deswegen konnen der Unterschied der beiden Begriffe nicht klar unterscheiden. Dieser Aufsatz beabsichtigt, das Verhaltnis und der begriffliche Unterschied der Ausschlussfrist zur Verjahrung nach dem deutschen Recht zu verfolgen. Weil es im deutschen Gesetzbuch klarer dargestellt, welche Vorschrift sei Ausschlussfrist oder Verjahrung. Nach der Untersuchung ist es zu erkennen, dass das Verhaltnis der Ausschlussfrist zur Verjahrung auch im deutschen Recht verhaltnismassig undeutlich ist, obwohl die betreffende Vorschriften ein Fristwesen deutlich besagen. Da es in Japan nach dem Wortlaut eines Gesetzes nicht daruber urteilen konnen, wurde es selbstverstandlich sein, dass die beiden Begriffe nur undeutlich unterschieden warden. Daher soll es in Japan keine gegenwartige akademische Aufgabe sein, welche Frist in bestimmten Gesetz Ausschlussfrist oder Verjahrung darstellt, sondern es wichtger ware, welche Bedeutung jeder Frist auf jedem Gesetz beigemessen zu werden. Nach der Untersuchung des deutschen Rechts schlagt dieser Aufsatz die Notwendigkeit von der weiteren Nachdenken uber den Ausschlussfristbegriffs vor.
In this symposium, 4 panelists raised issues on recent bioethical problems from the viewpoint of not only medicine and welfare but also law and politics. The medical treatment and science regarding the life in recent years are reaching to a new stage by the progress of the top medical treatment technology such as genetic technique, artificial reproductive technology, and artificial longevity technology. However, we are afraid of unlimited escalation of the medical treatment. Bioethics is therefore required to set a new framework of ethics on human clone, reproduction back-up medical treatment, organ transplantation, and terminal care. This symposium provided important on those issues.
This paper tries attempts clarify the confusion regarding policy making of human cloning. Using a method of social science, (not law studies, nor medical point of view,) I will introduce how the laws banning human cloning were made in Japan and the other countries. This paper mainly introduces you the process of making laws about bioethics in Japan. The issue of human cloning has been regarded as a 'highly professional issues', and the decision making has always been governed by bioethists and scientists who specialize in the area of reproductive medicine. I followed the decision making process in Japan to find out that Parliament members were excluded in the process. My deepest concern is this 'is democracy working in the field of bioethics?'. I also consider bioethics from the new aspect of democracy. The question asks issues of bioethics should be discussed only by the specialists or the people. This is a very deep inquiry about democracy. This paper is a first step to discuss this matter on a national level.
This paper focuses on the parental relation in Artificial Reproduction. First, 1) Two types of Artificial Insemination; the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive tract of a female for the purpose of impregnating the female by using means other than sexual intercourse, are examined. i) Artificial Insemination by Husband (AIH), and ii) Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID). Next, 2) as a treatment for infertile women, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Embryo Transfer, (ET), and Micro-insemination are examined. Further, paternity is discussed in cases where a wife is conceived using frozen sperm after her husband's death. Finally, 3) relationship between mother and child in cases of Surrogacy, i) surrogate mother and ii) host mother is examined.
The present Organ Transplant Law was enacted in October 1997. Here 12 years later, movements to revise the law have become more active, with four amendments bills being discussed and examined in the Diet. This movement for a revision of the law is assumed to be caused by the view that the International Transplant Society's proposal of the Istanbul Declaration and the World Health Organization's (WHO) intention to declare a prohibition on traveling to other countries for organ transplants, coupled with the conditions prescribed by the present organ transplant law will make such transplants more difficult. Under the present law, organ transplants require the documented expression of the person in question and the agreement of the donor's family. Furthermore, organ donations are not allowed in cases where the donor is less than 15 years of age. As a result, there are a lot of Japanese who receive organ transplants in foreign countries. It is clear that the aim of the revision this time is to avoid such conditions and to align with current world trends by fulfilling the need for organ transplants within this country. Among the proposed amendment bills, Proposal "A" was passed by both the House of Councillors and the House of Representatives on July 13, 2009. Under Proposal "A" as long as there is no expressed refusal made by the donor, an organ donation may be made as long as there is an agreement of the donor's family. There is also no limit regarding the age of the organ donor. This Amendment Bill is planned to take effect starting in July 2010. Needless to say, with the implementation of this Amendment Bill, it will be necessary to increase the number of Transplant Coordinators and to establish a system to educate and train them. Thesis Composition 1. Current state of organ transplants in Japan 2. Historical details regarding organ transplants 3. Cause of the current Organ Transplant Law revision and its background 4. Content and examination of the four amendment bill proposals 5. Problems regarding implementation of the amendment bill and measures for resolution
In May 2007, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare announced guidelines on the process of decision-making concerning the termination of medical treatment. The two basic principles are:・respect for the patient's right to make decisions (including provisions in the case of mental incapacity)・ensuring appropriate medical treatment through a medical team of relevant practitioners. However, unlike in the United Kingdom, the Ministry's guidelines concern only the process of decision-making and not medical practice. In October 2007, the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) also announced guidelines on terminal treatment. Again, they concerns only matters such as immediate life support in the case of emergencies and are therefore not a complete reference. Yet according to the media, medical treatment has already been withdrawn in the case of over fifty patients following the JAAM guidelines. The development of medicine has made it possible to prolong life indefinitely in the case of comatose patients. On the other hand, families often wish treatment to be withdrawn. In view of the lack of full guidelines based on social consensus, withdrawal of medical treatment is thus occurring in somewhat of a theoretical vacuum. This paper discusses the problem in comparison with the current situation in the USA and the UK, and proposes a possible solution.