The media environment is changing greatly in our advanced information-oriented society. Recently, human rights violations by the media and other kinds of human rights violations using information and communication technology have become important issues. Among other kinds of human rights violations, cyber-bullying among children has become a serious problem. This problem suggests a lack of proper media literacy education. Media-related human rights violations are mainly caused by a lack of awareness of human rights and a lack of a sense of morality. Therefore, this papers aims to establish a further protection of human rights, and proposes how to put this into practice by firstly, establishing media literacy education as an important element of public education and secondly, improving its effectiveness by making media literacy education obligatory in school by studying how it has been done in foreign countries.
The "Act on Procedures for Amendment of the Constitution", which clarifies the procedure for amendment of the Constitution, was proclaimed on 14 May 2007, and will be put into force on 18 May 2010, after three years of deferment. The hitherto absence of any law on the procedure for amendments to the Constitution stipulated in the Article 96 of the Constitution, is due to omission by the legislature, an indication that the principle of popular sovereignty had been slighted. The implementation of the' Act on Procedures for Amendment of the Constitution' is, therefore of great significance. On the other hand, there remain many challenges. In this report, we consider, from the legal point of view one of the most important issues among the challenges: 'the referendum movement by civil servants and educators'. Analysis is made, with attention paid to trends in judicial precedents, based on the 'freedom of expression' as defined in Article 21 of the Constitution.
Recently, opinions have been expressed concerning the importance of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) for not only stockholders but also for the benefit of so-called stake-holders such as employees, company creditors, and regional society. However, consideration from the legal viewpoint, starting with CSR itself, depends on the researcher. Not only do issues such as the perceptions of CSR differ, but so also do the assumptions on which the theory of abstract duty and responsibility are based. Neither the substance nor the denotation are necessarily clear. Accordingly, in this thesis, CSR is analyzed into more detailed elements, with focus on one particular element, corresponding to the effect of constructing a corporate internal control system for antisocial forces. When issues such as the Janome Sewing Machine Co., Ltd. trial, are considered from the viewpoint of corporate finance, such a correspondence achieves a smooth corporate financing (or prevents the corporate value being damaged), and consequently CSR will also be achieved.
In den letzten Jahren nahm das Trickbetrugsdelikt dieser Form zu, das per Handy oder Internet begangen wird, und diese Kriminalitat ist jetzt zu einem ernsthaften gesellschaftlichen Problem geworden. In meinem Aufsatz habe ich den gegenwartigen Zustand dieser Kriminalitat erlautert und mich mit der Frage auseinander gesetzt, welche rechtliche Massnahmen hierfur gelten sollen. Dabei babe ich folgende vier Fragen behandelt. Erstens: Soll fur Trickbetrug in dieser Form als Sachbetrug der § 246 Abs.1 angewendet werden oder als Betrug des Vermogensvorteils der § 246 Abs.2? Zweitens: Soll der Betrug mit dem Trick von Vortauschung einer Ruckerstattung als Computerbetrug oder als einfacher Betrug gelten? Drittens: Was hat ein Angeklagter rechtlich zu verantworten, der einem Trickbetruger dieser Art ein Bankkonto gegen Geld rechtswidrig uberliess und spater die Betrugssumme durch Einzahlung an einem Bankschalter abhob. Viertens: Was hat ein Angeklagter rechtlich zu verantworten, der einem Trickbetruger dieser Art ein Bankkonto gegen Geld rechtswidrig uberliess und spater per Internetbanking die Betrugssumme auf ein anderes Konto uberwies. In meinem Aufsatz babe ich diese vier Fragen ausfuhrlich erortert and dazu eingehend Stellung genommen.
The way we express ourselves in this society can appear very complex. For instance, two or more people may produce a particular expression. When a certain expression is observed, it is necessary to consider how the expressive activity is carried out among people. This paper aims to consider how people who rejoice in freedom of expression form the expressive activity. Especially, the focus of this paper is how to understand the complex relationship among various parties participating in an expressive activity. First of all, in this study, I explain what are the concept of media and the concept of content. Secondly, I confirm the necessity of examining what "content" means. Finally, I introduce some cases in terms of the subject of the freedom of expression, and then analyze them theoretically. Although traditional theories on freedom of expression concerning media have especially focused on publication, this study discusses how important it is to construct a theory which deals with the "content". At the same time, this study investigates the necessity to reconsider the importance of the value of freedom of expression.
In my study of the extent of administrative authority vested in the executor of a will in carrying it out, under both Japanese and foreign law, it has come to light that there still remain problems in the exercise of such authority in practical terms. With respect to the execution of the property clause of the will, particularly the specifications on how to divide the estate, it is commonly held that the exercise of rights and the authority of the claimant of hereditary reserve versus the executor of the will, are, on the whole, to be determined by a substantive trial at a court of law. It is seen that judgment of the value of the relationship between the details of the will versus the specifics of the executor's duties, as well as of the standing of those concerned, etc., varies greatly from trial to trial. Judicial precedents show that the authority of the executor of the will is usually interpreted in a narrow sense, but there do exist special cases in which it is acknowledged to be broader. In particular, with respect to a will that clearly "allows" inheritance, the scope of the executor's authority is interpreted quite unambiguously, and it is thought that this is quite appropriate in such cases.
According to Article718 of Civil law in Japan, strict liability is imposed on the responsibility of the animal owners. This means that if an animal causes damage, the animal's owners should take the responsibility without any consideration of any mitigating circumstances, regardless of any fault that may lie with the victim. However, considering the recent pet boom and the coexistence and coprosperity of persons and animals in various fields, we must now consider situations that we could never have imagined at the time of the drafting of the original Civil law. So I believe it is time to adjust the relationship between persons, animals and laws. Therefore I consider in this article whether the definition of responsibilities in Article718 may be possible. In particular I examine whether the interpretation of Paragraph2 of Article833 of German Civil Codes could be adopted, which doesn't have the owner of domestic animals carry the strict liability, for guide dogs, which are indispensable to the lives of handicapped persons, or whether the legal principle of "assumption of risk" can be applied to the victim.
"Local governance in Japan : the change of public hospital"s management as an example" Yasukuni IWAGAMI This article deals with the local governance in japan, especiality forcus on the change of public hospital's management as an example. This article showed that the financial status can be improved by the introduction of the desighnated manager system to reinforcement of the governance. "The shift from first to second generation of governance: consideration for the emerging trend of governance network theory" Kentaro KOGURE Scine the early 1990's, the concept of governance has been in fashion in political science. After two decades, governance fas still been useful framework for analyzing the political change in the public policy process. Although governance has been valid tool kit for analyzing the policy process, it has examined thotoughly from every angle since its debut. For instance, governance process means that many privite actors partcilate in the crucial problem in governance. The second generation of governance theory, which was mainly leaded by two Danish scholars, Eva Sorensen and Jacob Torfing, has been forcused on this issue. In this paper I will deal with the second generation and review the latest trends in the governance theory.