The harsh environment of semi-arid and arid regions induces plants in these regions to produce numerous bioactive compounds with therapeutic or medicinal properties. An initial study of extracts from arid land plants Cymbopogon schoenanthus, Crithmum maritimum, Rhanterium suaveolens, and Artemisia herba-alba evaluated their effects on Type I allergic reactions and melanin biosynthesis using RBL-2H3 basophilic cells and B16 murine melanoma cells, respectively. Plant extracts were not cytotoxic at low concentrations. β-hexosaminidase release inhibition assay indicated that extracts significantly inhibited mast cell degranulation. Melanin assay results showed significant melanin biosynthesis regulatory effects in B16 cells. Further studies are being undertaken to understand the mechanism underlying the observed effects.
Saline soils of Ukraine, its genesis, features of distribution, areas and role in agricultural production are characterized. The main directions of saline soils research in Ukraine: on the basis of established patterns of development and distribution of soil processes and regimes, a regulatory framework for the monitoring of saline soils is created; agro-environmental criteria, parameters and diagnostics of saline soils are developed; it is developed a set of differentiated methods for the prevention or elimination of salinization and alkalinization of lands, management of their fertility. Conditions are formulated and activities are proposed, which are likely to rational and efficient use of saline soils in Ukraine. The analysis of the existing legislative, legal, regulatory and methodological, financial support of saline lands fertility management in Ukraine is given.
In order to apply an artificial rainfall by aircraft seeding of liquid carbon dioxide (LCD) for security of water resources, development of desert and prevention of desertification, the authors conducted several experiments. Six successful results were obtained in two years. The successful results of the LCD seeding experiments on February 27, 2012 and March 14, May 28 and December 15, 2013 were represented in this paper. The experiments, except the third one, were carried out during cold period. The third experiment was carried out in a warm period as a first time experiment, however, the result was also successful. The clouds for experiment were mainly convective cloud type but in some cases were also a stratiform cloud. We can get a water of 1 to 5 million tons by 1 experiment by the amount of 5 kg LCD of CO2. In these experiments, usage of LCD, developing cloud area and amount of rain by a short seeding time were small. If more water is needed, we can seed every cloud on time to time continuously. Therefore, we can produce large amount of water, 10-100 million tons. The charter fee of aircraft is high, however, the amount of water reserved is large. So it can pay finally. Then, it is presumed that the LCD technique can be used for security of water resources to agriculture and industries, development of desert, prevention of desertification, and so on. We believe that this technique can spread all over the world.
Rapid increase of livestock numbers urgently demands ways of improving and increasing the forage base for domestic livestock in Turkmenistan. Progressive technologies and new innovations are needed to provide necessary increases in forage production and quality. Currently, extensive areas of saline and sodic soils as well as mineralized tailwater from large irrigation projects are underutilized. Halophyte species development offers the potential to increase forage productivity on saline affected lands in Turkmenistan and other Central Asian countries. In this study, Salicornia europaea, Suaeda acuminata, Climacoptera turcomanica, Atriplex micrantha and A. ornata showed potential as cultivated forage species on irrigated salt affected soils.
Agricultural productivity in Central Asia has increased with the development of irrigation. In some regions, continual agricultural land use without adequate maintenance of drainage systems, despite using abundant water in the fields, has led to an increase in groundwater levels and soil salinization rate. The salinization level can be changed by controlling the groundwater level. Important countermeasures practiced in Uzbekistan include lowering high groundwater levels through open drainage, sub-surface drainage, and vertical drainage systems. Here, we report the current status and problems of these systems in Syrdarya region, Uzbekistan, which is afflicted with serious salinization issues as per field survey results and existing data. Our results clarify that the functioning of the drainage system should be monitored because (1) the bottoms of the open drainage are too undulated to allow smooth discharge, (2) some outlets of the sub-surface drainage are under drainage water level or covered with soil, and (3) the current operation style of the vertical drainage is different from the conventional one. Thus, it is important to ascertain the effects of the discharge systems in Uzbekistan.
Olives are known to contain an appreciable amount of polyphenols with good antioxidant properties, which are abundantly occurred in olive mill water (OMW) during olive oil production. Membrane technology offers several advantages (low energy consumption, no additive requirements and no phase change) compared to traditional techniques to recover polyphenols from OMW. In the present study, we have proposed to analyse the potentialities of an integrated membrane process for the recovery and concentration of polyphenols from OMW. The proposed process included three membrane operations: microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). After preliminary centrifugation of OMW which resulted in the reduction of 45% of total dissolved solid, the supernatant was subjected to a MF operation. This step allowed achieving 8% reduction of total dissolved solid. Moreover, most polyphenols were recovered in the produced permeate solution. The MF permeate stream was then submitted to a UF treatment. Most polyphenols initially present in OMW were recovered in the permeate stream using the discontinuous diafiltration mode, with 70% reduction on total dissolved solid. A concentrated solution enriched of polyphenols was obtained by treating the UF permeate using NF operation. In particular, the proposed integrated system allows the recovery of 86% of total polyphenols in the NF retentate, with hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein representing nearly 50% of the total polyphenols.
Eradication of hunger is one of the important goals listed out in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Most nations identified as vulnerable have taken some action against malnutrition and food insecurity. This paper tries to compile the food security schemes initiated by 12 such vulnerable nations and their impact on food security. The nations have some commonalities like legacy of colonial era, large population living below poverty line, intermittent periods of double digit inflation, high debt burden but no history of debt crisis, etc. Most of these nations have large tracts of semi-arid tropics and hence many face problems of low agriculture productivity. Yet some have been able to achieve very low levels of malnutrition and hunger in their countries while some have been struggling to feed their masses. This paper gives a critical look at what has worked for the successful nations by taking the case studies of government schemes of these 12 nations.
Coal bio-briquettes that were made with coal, biomass and a desulfurizer are suitable for desulfurization technology and biomass utilization in rural areas of China. Because coal bio-briquette ash included Ca compounds such as gypsum, we investigated the effects of ash application on corn growth and amelioration of soil chemical properties for salt-affected soils in northeastern China. Two types of bio-briquette (BB 1 and BB 2) were made from low-quality coal (sulfur content = 2.1% (BB 1) and 4.1% (BB 2)), corn stem, and calcium hydroxide. Two bio-briquette ashes (BBA 1 and BBA 2) were added to four experimental fields of salt-affected soil at application rates of 0 wt%, 0.5 wt% (1.16 kg/m2), 1.0 wt% (2.32 kg/m2), 2.0 wt% (4.64 kg/m2) and 3.0 wt% (6.96 kg/m2) in three replications. Moreover, ammonia fertilizer was added to all plots, and pig manure as an organic fertilizer was added to two of the test plots. Corn production increased with increased application rate of ash across all test plots. In addition, pH and ESP, Na, CO3 and HCO3 concentration of soil solution decreased with increased application rate of bio-briquette ash. Results suggest that decreased pH and ESP with an associated decrease in Na compounds such as Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 at greater ash application rates contribute towards observed increases in corn production. In conclusion, application of bio-briquette ash derived from low-quality coal could effectively ameliorate salt-affected soils.
In recent years, the land deterioration by decreasing licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) becomes one of the most serious problems in Mongolia. Authors try to propose the high value-added greening by establishing a sustainable planting technique by utilizing licorice. As the first step, the geo-environmental and climate survey was conducted to grasp the environment in licorice habitat area. Based on the results of the preceding survey, a method of greening using cylindrical Greening Soil Materials (GSM) were proposed and planting experiments were conducted in Mongolian arid land. Based on the results of field survey and planting experiments, following conclusions could be obtained. 1) There was the great difference between habitat area and non-habitat area for the amount of water in the ground. Both of surface layers were dry, however habitat area had relatively higher water content (5-20%) than the that of non-habitat area (1-3%) at the points deeper than 20 cm from surface. 2) Covering ground surface by vinyl mulching sheet could keep water content 1.1 times to 2 times or more and raise the survival rate of licorice. 3) The condition with mature and compost available in survey area could retain 3 times amount of water than that of only sand condition. 4) The bigger GSM could keep much more water and lead to high survival rate. 5) In case the water content could be kept 8% in the soil, 80% of licorice could survive and grow.
Sustainable carbon fixation system with large scale afforestation in arid land has been proposed for the mitigation of global warming. To avoid the problem of rainfall shortage and the large evaporation loss, our afforestation system has adopted a water-harvesting system. We have set a research site near Leonora (mean annual rainfall and evaporation are about 200 mm and 2,500 mm, respectively), Western Australia. We have so far developed an original runoff simulation model for understanding of water behavior involving penetration, evaporation and runoff. In previous studies, the best values of corrective coefficient of penetration (PR), and equivalent roughness coefficient (N) were determined by fitting numerical results to the water level data of the collecting pond of a watershed within 6 km × 4.8 km. In the present paper we extend this model to the larger area of 43 km × 52 km to evaluate the change in water penetration before and after the afforestation of bare ground, assuming that penetration rate of the bare ground changes to that of woodland by the afforestation. Then we evaluate effect of afforestation on penetration water amount by comparing the calculated results before and after afforestation in the large area. Finally we show the strategy to select appropriate afforestation sites and the way to evaluate the effects of afforestation on the vegetation of the peripheral areas.
The purpose of this research is to develop the sustainable and highly value-added anti-desertification method, which can accomplish geo-environmental improvement, conservation and utilization of local bio-resource in southern Mongolia. We developed pipe-shaped Greening Soil Material (GSM) which is made of sand and compost which can be taken from Mongolian arid region. It can be made inexpensively and installed in the ground easily. Moreover, it is characterized to have high water and nutrient retention capacity to support growing plants. Therefore, it is identified as simple self-watering system without artificial water supply in the growing period. As the suitable plant for greening, we selected licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) which is one of the most valuable medicinal plants growing in Mongolian and Chinese arid region. However, supply shortage and land degradation due to natural and human factors occur recently. Therefore, planting licorice by using GSM could be sustainable and high value-added greening. In this paper, in order to grasp the effects and functions of GSM, field cultural experiments were conducted in non-habitat of licorice without any irrigation except before starting experiments for 4 or 9 months. The results are as follows; 1) Larger volume of GSMs could keep the survival rate of licorice higher than smaller types. 2) The conditions setting GSMs vertically and horizontally were similar effects for survival rate of licorice. 3) Artificial compost (UB) could keep the survival rate of licorice about 1.4 times higher than animal fertilizer (LC). 4) At the range of these experimental conditions, the conditions which could keep 20 - 25 g/pot of CaCO3 were higher survival rate.
Over the past 150 years, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) has increased from 270 to 378 μmol mol-1 and is expected to reach ~565 μmol mol-1 by 2100. In addition to changes to global climate, increasing [CO2] directly affects autotrophs such as plants, often increasing both photosynthesis and primary productivity. However, biomass accumulation by perennial plants is offset to some degree by biomass shed, which is usually called litter production. Using Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) technology at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert of southwestern North America, we examined litter production over 9 years of experimental treatments to determine if litter production changed in concert with aboveground productivity in a desert ecosystem. Results indicate that the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata was the only species that had significant [CO2] effects on litter production. These significant effects occurred in two years and when summed over the entire 9-year period of observation. Litter production for the drought-deciduous shrub Ambrosia dumosa under elevated [CO2] tended to be greater than other treatments in most years and cumulative litter production for Ambrosia was numerically greater for the elevated [CO2] treatment, but differences were not significant in any one year or when summed over all years. Litter production for other microsites was usually very similar, both within each year and when summed over the 9-year period. These litter production results are consistent with shoot production results, although temporally delayed and, thus, is an appropriate proxy for aboveground productivity response to elevated atmospheric [CO2].
Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. (Mesquite) is one of 100 world’s worst invasive alien species, inducing a threat to human subsistence in arid regions. To control the invasion of Prosopis seedlings after episodic rainfall followed by immediate soil desiccation, we focus on the property of ‘seed gum’ (galactomannan (GM)). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ecological role of this saccharide for seed germination. Three germination tests were conducted under several osmotic potentials using poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 solutions. Intact seeds were incubated in eight PEG solutions (0, -1.0, -1.5, -1.6, -1.7, -1.8, -1.9 and -2.0 MPa). GM-present and GM-removed seeds were incubated in three PEG solutions (-1.5, -1.7, -1.9 MPa). GM-present and GM-removed seeds were desiccated in advance for one or two weeks, and incubated in the three PEG solutions. All intact seeds were germinated in 0 and -1.0 MPa. Germination rate in -1.5 MPa was slightly lower, and decreased as reducing osmotic potential. These results confirm that Prosopis seed is highly drought tolerant. GM-present seeds germinated more frequently than GM-removed seeds both in -1.5 and -1.7 MPa treatments, independent of desiccation periods. These results suggest that seed gum has important role to keep germination ability of Prosopis seeds through wet-dry cycle in rainy season of arid environments.
In many arid and/or semi-arid regions where water is scarce, it is critical to reduce deep percolation below root zones. One of the approaches to achieve such goal is to introduce an artificial capillary barrier (CB), which usually consists of a layer of gravels. CBs occur at an interface of two soil layers with contrast hydraulic properties. Although it has been known to improve root zones by suppressing capillary rise of saline water and by inhibiting deep percolation of irrigated water, the optimum design of CB has not been fully established for cultivation. The main objectives of this study were to investigate 1) the effect of the CB design on suppressing the capillary rise, and 2) the effect of installing such CB layer on cultivating leaf vegetable under reduced irrigation condition. In this study, column experiments and cultivation experiments were conducted by introducing CBs as a means to improve water retention ability of the root zones. Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), one of the common leafy vegetables, was cultivated in containers with different soil layers in a phytotron located in a campus of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. From our experiment, it was found that artificial CBs can be used to manage irrigation rates. Further investigations and experiments are needed to fully evaluate the effect of CBs.
The agriculture along Senegal River, especially on the right bank of Mauritanian territory side, depends on the flood inundation. The recession agriculture that uses the flood plain of the river after inundation is traditional style but gives unstable productivity. In addition, catastrophic damages on the farm field are given in the big rainy years. The authors propose that Lake R’kiz, the dry lake located on the right bank of Senegal River can be used as the retention pond for flood control and water reservoir for the agriculture in dry season. In this study, we tried to simulate the inundation on the flood plain under the current river system as a first step. Based on this numerical simulation model, the construction of the cannel from Senegal River to R’kiz Lake will be considered in further study. The digital elevation model (DEM) of the flood plain of the study site from upper Podor to Dhiama dam was obtained from the free database of Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM). The hydrological data used as the boundary condition on Dhiama dam and Podor are the observed data in 1999 when there was a big flood. iRIC that solves the 2 dimensional shallow water flow equation was applied to those conditions and result of the simulation was evaluated by the comparison with the water surface area estimated by satellite image analysis. The simulation result and satellite image analysis do not show the perfect agreement because of the assumptions for the unknown conditions of the river channel and hydraulic effect of Guier Lake on Senegal territory.
The Aral Sea Problem is now regarded as one of the serious environmental problems in the world. The decrease in Aral Sea area was caused by irrigated agriculture on a large scale which started in the 1950’s, especially in the Aral Sea basin. As the result, many villages were built in the area and people started production activities such as cotton growing, wheat and vegetables. The gradual climate change over the centuries was accelerated by the ecological disaster of the Aral Sea which took place in the late 20th century in Aral Sea basin, especially in Karakalpakstan. Ground water or river water is the main source of drinking water in this basin. We researched changes in water quality over the period from 2008. In these studies, we compared the trends in EC values of Amu-Darya water and ground water until 2011.
The south-western Mauritania characterized by semi-arid environment, located between the Senegal River in the south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The objective of this work is to combine the groundwater recharge and salinity problems for identifying the groundwater recharge in response to current and past environmental changes. The field survey carried out from 2010 to 2012 monitoring the water level and salinity in the study area.Results show that the water table levels appeared quite stable. However, combining groundwater recharge and salinity revealed that the dynamics of the aquifer is influenced by many changes particularly when Diama dams constructed and now regulating the river flow. The main source of the aquifer recharge is lateral infiltration from the Senegal River, and precipitation to a lesser extent. The important effect of evaporation on surface waters before and during their infiltration is strongly marked salinity signature. We found some seasonal fluctuations in the water (about 0.5 m) that could be related to the infiltration of rain but these points deserve to be tracked more accurately. The study has also been studied near the Senegal River, where the delta of Senegal River, local rise and smoothing a fluctuation of groundwater has been recorded.
Serious droughts induced by expanding irrigation in the Aral Sea Basin have led to a reevaluation of water security in the region. At the same time, sustainable development in the region is coupled to water availability. Thus, creating a reliable estimate of future water demands is a top priority. Statistical modeling alone has not been consistently accurate with regard to modeling the impact of climate change on future water resources. We attempt to develop a physical water circulation model for the Aral Sea Basin, based on the land surface model SiBUC. To improve model performance, in situ measurements were carried out starting in 2011 at two sites in Kyzylkesek and Bayavut farms located in arid and semi-arid regions respectively. Soil moisture and electric conductivity, as well as ground water levels were measured in order to estimate actual irrigation application. Soil moisture in the arid farm sharply fluctuated due to high evapotranspiration and infiltration, while in the semi-arid farm it changed moderately. The semi-arid farm also showed an overall increasing trend of electric conductivity, corresponding to increased soil salinity over the period of observation. Finally, the local irrigation strategies were observed and reflected in the model, and irrigation frequency and annual water requirement for main cash crops were reproduced.
This report presents a case study on the role of a third party role in improving water management in Uzbekistan by analyzing the “Water Management Improvement Project”. The Water Users’ Associations (WUAs, presently called Water Consumers’ Associations in Uzbekistan, WCAs) in Central Asia was organized accordance with the contract between central governments and the Central Asian Irrigation Research Institute (SANIIRI) in 1996. However, inadequate financial resources and a lack of knowledge on the part of the WUAs hydro-engineers have led to these associations not functioning well. Hydro-scientists have frequently voiced concerned at the Interstate Coordination Water Commission of Central Asia (ICWC), the regional interstate organization for water resources management in Central Asia, on water loss at the WUAs’ level owing to improper water management. The “Water Management Improvement Project” is a technical assistance aid project which conducted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). This project aimed to improve water-use efficiency in rural areas in Uzbekistan by training the staffs of the WCAs. In March, August and September 2013, the present author accompanied JICA staff and conducted fieldwork on this project. The present study attempts to contextualize the JICA project with respect to previous studies and discussions among the Central Asian hydro-scientists in the ICWC.
This study introduces a method of spatial prediction of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) using a modified Hargreaves empirical model for Tashkent Province, Uzbekistan. Previously, the empirical coefficient (0.0023) of the Hargreaves model was modified under local climatic conditions of Tashkent Province using standard Penman Monteih FAO 56 model estimates for every month in the vegetation period (March to September). The monthly climate data for the vegetation period were provided by Uzhydrometeorological Bureau of Uzbekistan. Statistical comparison was conducted in the ArcGIS platform (ver. 10. 2 ESRI) among deterministic and geostatistical methods to evaluate the performance of interpolation methods concerning suitability for spatial prediction of monthly averaged ETo. The best interpolation model of ETo was obtained from the Co-kriging method using elevation data as an auxiliary secondary variable. The results revealed that the incorporation of elevation data improved spatial prediction of ETo in Tashkent Province. The modified Hargreaves model provided the best performance to estimate ETo in Tashkent Province as an arid and semiarid climate. Over and under estimations of ETo with the original Hargreaves model were reduced by 65% on average when using new empirical coefficients for all 16 weather stations.
The forest steppe in Mongolia lies between the taiga forests and the steppe grasslands, in moister conditions than steppe grasslands. Forest steppe encompasses both coniferous forests and grasslands, each with a unique distribution pattern. This geographical diversity supports biodiversity, giving the forest steppe great value. Although there are many studies of the vegetation of forest steppe, few studies relate vegetation to soil properties. The objective of this study was to clarify the characteristics of soils under the forest steppe in Mongolia. The study was carried out at four sites in Gorkhi-Terelj National Park. We investigated the soil profiles under grassland on a south-facing slope (TER-G) and on a ridge (TER-T), under forest on a north-facing slope (TER-F1) and under dense forest on a north-facing slope (TER-F2). We analyzed soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH (H2O, KCl), exchangeable bases, CEC and humic substances. Two soil-vegetation associations were identified. On Phaeozems characterized by a high C content and high base saturation ratio, the A horizon became thicker, the humic C to fulvic C ratio increased, and the ratio of humic acid to humic + fulvic acids increased as the vegetation changed from forest to grassland. In contrast, Umbrisol was characterized by a low C content, a high C/N ratio and a low base saturation ratio.
It is easy to estimate the volume of the water in dams and plan its use. However, in the arid area, due to the low vegetation cover, the soil erosion in the catchment area is quite serious. The eroded soil enters the reservoirs, then, settled as sediment and reduces the water storage capacity of the dams. However, due to the financial reason, countermeasures such as dredging are not carried out in a lot of cases, especially in developing countries. One of the inexpensive ways to reduce the sediment amount is density current venting, discharging the flood turbid water downstream as density current. Whether the flood water forms the bottom density current depends on the temperature and the concentration of suspended solids of river water. Therefore, in order to optimize reduction in loss of water resource, the standard for decision making opening/closing of the dam gate is required. For this study, Joumine dam, located in the north of Tunisia was selected as study site. Two rainy seasons gave different amount of precipitation and different volume of run-off of the river. Then, the numerical experiment with the hydraulic computational simulation model was carried out. The water temperature and the concentration of the suspended solid of river inflow which changes depending on the scale of river inflow; these are the parameters that decide the density and varied as experimental condition for finding the threshold between bottom density current and diffusing in the middle. The result shows that the influence of the change of the water temperature on the form of flood water is not so strong. It is defined mainly by the scale of the flood and its maximum concentration of suspended solids. In cases that the maximum flow rate is above 40 m3/sec, the bottom density current is formed.
Soil organic matter (SOM) associated with clay minerals plays an important role in maintaining fertility and storing carbon in soil. Moreover, for soil conservation, it is necessary to understand the nature of SOM associated with clay minerals in various environments. Our objective was to characterize SOM associated with clay minerals in Eurasian steppe soils using particle size fractionation and stable isotopic techniques. In this study, we collected 43 samples from grassland soils in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia as well as Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia in China, and conducted particle size fractionation to evaluate SOM associated clay minerals. The results revealed that SOM associated with clay minerals plays a key role in the fertility of Eurasian steppe soils (52.5% ± 9.0% C and 55.0% ± 8.2% N in total organic carbon and total nitrogen). The C/N ratio decreased in the following order: sand (13.5 ± 5.5) > silt (11.5 ± 2.0) > clay (8.6 ± 1.0). The δ13C and δ15N values of clay fractions were higher than those of silt and sand fractions in most samples. The C/N, δ13C, and δ15N values suggested that SOM associated with clay minerals contains more decomposed SOM. In addition, the difference of δ15N values between clay and silt fractions had a larger range than that of δ13C values. This indicated that δ15N values of SOM were a useful tool for clearly showing the difference of quality between particle size fractions in Eurasian steppe soils.
North African region with a peculiar climate of arid and semiarid, has much common with Southern part of Europe and Middle Eastern regions both geographically and culturally. The varieties of the customs and belief on olive can be seen in this region which shows the importance of olive for their lives. Even though these traditional customs face the modernity, they survive in rural and have been transformed into the adequate mode with urban life. In this paper, the old and new customs and the contemporary theme of olive growing are examined.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rhizobium inoculation on nodulation and yield of soybean in the arid area of China. Experiments were conducted in two types of fields. One was in the field in the extension station (on-station), and the other was in the agropastralists’ fields (on-farm). Soybean (cv. Heihe 5) was sown in late May of 2004 manually in the on-station experiment and by machine in the on-farm experiment. Before sowing, an inoculant, “Firster Nodule Bacterial Medicament of Leguminous Crops” made by “Qinhuangdao Leading Science & Technology Development Co., Ltd” was dressed onto the soybean seeds. Soybean was grown under fully irrigated condition, and was harvested in early September both from the on-station and on-farm fields. Nodules were observed even on the roots of non-inoculated soybean plants, but inoculation increased nodule numbers especially in the fields that soybean cultivation was newly started. Inoculation increased soybean yield significantly in the on-station experiment. However, in the on-farm experiment, inoculation increased soybean yield slightly but not significantly. Yield increase was higher in the fields with lower yield level, therefore, inoculation is considered to contribute to yield stabilization of soybean. It is concluded that rhizobium inoculation can increase soybean yield through increased nodulation in the region especially in lower fertility fields showing lower yield level or fields with less history of soybean cultivation. Rhizobium inoculation is recommended when farmers start to grow soybean in a newly developed land in the arid area of China.
We evaluated the effects of long-term protective management for conserving native vegetation and species composition. The field survey was performed in Chambi National Park, located in west-central Tunisia. Species composition differed between the protected sites and the unprotected site. At the unprotected site, economically valuable plants were lost. At sites where Stipa tenacissima dominated, species diversity and species richness were notably lower. Our results suggest that the species composition of the area has changed as people have overharvested plant materials for medicine and food as well as for livestock feed. It is necessary to conserve the nature of the region but also to understand the needs of local residents. We submit that control of Stipa tenacissima is important to conserve species diversity. Future vegetation management should work to conserve the diversity of bioresources in protected areas.
This article is dedicated to crops diversification on marginal (low productive, salt affected and abandoned) lands through mobilization of high-yielding, salt- and drought-tolerant, improved genetic lines of sorghum and pearl millet under conditions of Priaralie (downstream of Central Asian rivers). Screening of more than 11 improved lines of sorghum and 7 pearl millet from ICBA through on-station and participatory on-farm trials in rice crops rotation in Kyzylorda region has been performed. Sudan POP I, GB 8735, HHVBC Tall, IP 19586 ‘Sudan Pop III’ of pearl millet and ICSSH 28, ICSSH 58, ICSV 25275 of sorghum were identified as the highly productive the most salt- and drought-tolerant varieties for food, grain and forage production. Sorghum formed more than 68 t/ha and pearl millet 48 t/ha of green forage biomass under limited irrigation on saline soils of Priaralie. Average threshold salinity levels for examined sorghum corresponds as ICSV 93046 > ICSSH58 > SPV1411> S35 > ICSV25279> ICSV112 > ICSV25280 > ICSV 25275 > ICSR93034 > ICSR172 and trend of salinity tolerance for investigated pearl millet varieties is arranged as IP22269 > IP19586 > IP13150 > Hashaki 1 > HHVBC Tall > ICMS7704 accordingly. Positive correlation between dry fodder yield and soil salinity at the 30 cm and 45 cm soil depths was observed for pearl millet and sorghum. Corresponding coefficients of determination (R2) between plant height and soil salinity for pearl millet and sorghum were 0.63 and 0.65. As a result, sorghum and pearl millet planted as main crops after winter wheat harvesting in summer and or second crops in short cropping rotation in rice production system are recommended.
It has now been found that soil, being at the junction of all the geospheres of the earth, is a unique node of ecological links with numerous global functions. Soil disturbance, as surely as a gap in the links between geospheres, leads to significant changes in the functioning of natural ecosystems.It is especially noticeable in regions with intensive development of mining industry. In these areas there is a transformation of basic soil-ecological functions and replacing of the native landscapes into natural-technogenic complexes. In addition technogenic desertification processes occur over large areas and it leads to a radical transformation of the natural landscapes and ecosystem functioning regimes. Therefore, it is required a very long period to rebuild disturbed functions without reclamation works at the disturbed areas. To restore damaged ecosystems it is necessary to restore the soil, because soil is the basis of any terrestrial ecosystem. Currently tendency to partially restoring economic and environmental damage caused by disturbance of the natural soil takes a place at the practical reclamation. When developing remediation methods it is necessary to provide such range of processing methods, which allows generating soil-like substrates, which have properties as much as possible close to the properties of the undisturbed soil. Soil restoring with creating soil-like substrates must be a general aim of the reclamation. Technogenic landscapes will forever save the technogenic specificity of their functioning. And these landscapes will negatively impact on ecological situation in region for a long time.
Forage kochia (Bassia prostrata L.) has been used extensively by grazing animals in Central Asia. Forage kochia was introduced into the U.S.A. in 1966 from a Stavropol Botanical Gardens (USSR) planting, and released as a cultivar (Immigrant) in 1984. It has been included in fire and rangeland rehabilitation seed mixes and planted on at least 200,000-400,000 ha in the USA. However, in central Nevada (USA), it has been linked to cattle mortality by frothy bloat (primary ruminal tympany) under specific ecological site conditions. In order to assess its potential to cause frothy bloat in free roaming cattle, we investigated the nutritive value of forage kochia across a grazing season (September-January), and compared in vitro gas production, and foam production and strength with fresh alfalfa. Crude protein values were highest in October-November (23.3 and 21.5%, respectively), while NDF was lowest during the same period (38.8 and 39.3%, respectively). Gas and foam production were higher for alfalfa than kochia over a 12 h incubation period. In general, alfalfa produced twice as much gas and foam as forage kochia (P<0.001). However, forage kochia foam strength (g/DM) was double that of alfalfa (P<0.002), and by 6 h incubation time, foam height of forage kochia was twice that of alfalfa (P<0.001). Forage kochia when used as the sole forage in the diet has the potential to cause frothy bloat in cattle. Fresh alfalfa produces more gas in the rumen; however, foam from forage kochia digestion is likely to be more persistent, potentially leading to frothy bloat development.
The increasing frequency of dry periods in many regions of the world and the problems associated with salinity in irrigated areas frequently result in the consecutive occurrence of salinity and drought which lead desertification of cultivated land. In the department of soil microbiology Institute of microbiology AS RUz have developed a new environmentally safe bioagrotechnology for cultivation cotton on saline soils which based on the joint applying the 2 biopreparation Rizokom-1 and Serhosil. Revealed that the applying of a biopreparation Rizokom-1 as bacterization of cotton seeds, contributed to normalization of the salt content of saline soils: cations (Ca2+; Mg2+; Na+; K+) and anions (Cl- HCO3- SO42-) composition, reduced the content of the sum of salts: all salts 0.297%, toxic (NaCl + Na2SO4 + MgSO4) - to 0.228% and nontoxic (Ca(HCO3)2 + CaSO4) - 0.073% in the average during the vegetation in comparison with control. In the experimental variants revealed the active development of the root system by reducing the toxic salts in the soil and normalized the balance of nutrients. A well-developed root system facilitates the active absorption of nutrients from the soil. The using of a biopreparation Serhosil as foliar application on phases of 3-4 leaves, bud and flowering-fruiting of vegetation cotton, increased photosynthetic activity of the plant's leaves, which improved the nutrition of plant through the leaves. All this combined effect on the yield and quality of cotton fiber. Yield increased by 0.4-0.7 t/ha, and improved quality of cotton’s fiber.
Salinity and drought are important factors limiting crop productivity. Important aspect of the harmful effects of salt is a violation of metabolic processes. To improve the nutrition of winter wheat through the root system and leaf has developed a new biotechnology of cultivation of wheat on saline soils. Biotechnology is based on the application of biopreparation Rizokom-2 based on the salt-tolerant phosphorus and potassium mobilizing rhizobacteria of wheat for pre-sowing treatment of seeds. When applied Rizokom-2 microflora of soil balanced, as result were increased contents of mobile forms of soil ammonia nitrogen by 3.4 mg/kg, the phosphorus by 7.9 mg/kg, potassium 3.3 mg/kg, were reduced total contents of toxic salts at 0.20 - 0.34%, and at alkaline pH from 8.3 to 7.8, was improved the fertility of saline soils. For foliar application applied biopreparation Serhosil which based on the green microalgae g. Scenedesmus. Integrated application of biopreparations established a balance of nutrients in the soil and metabolism in winter wheat. As a result, developed a strong root system in wheat, improved consumption of water and nutrients from the soil, improved the processes of photosynthesis and supplying of organic matter from leaves, increases plant resistance to salinity and drought. Increased germination of seeds on saline soils stimulates plant growth and development of wheat increased grain yield. Increased germination of seeds in saline soils stimulated the growth and development of winter wheat. Weight of 1000 seeds was higher by 9.1 g, grain yield by 0.4-0.5 t / ha in comparison with traditional sowing.
During floristic study and study of the collection on plant specimens (LE, TASH, AA) 2 new records were found (Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia dracunculus L.) for the first time for the flora of Ustyurt. The revision presents chemical elements of the genus Artemisia L. in the flora of Ustyurt. The study of chemical composition of some dominant species of the genus Artemisia L. (A. terrae-albae Krasch., A. turanica Krasch.) revealed that observed species contains 38 chemical elements. Of these, the element Re defined for the first time in the composition of the plant.
Weather and climatic conditions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan are distinguished by unfavorable conditions in winter-spring period, soil salinity within the area, leading to reduction of wheat yield. The aim of the research was to develop and implement agro-technical activities to overcome the impact of unfavorable factors during winter wheat cultivation. There is evidence in the literature that diverse winter wheat cultivars have different resistance to stressful conditions and are able to tolerate drought and soil salinity. Various winter wheat cultivars with high productivity, good grain quality and ability to withstand adverse growing conditions were investigated. Field experiments were conducted in “Seyit" dehkan- farm” in Nukus district on the area of 3.5 ha, where leguminous crops were planted at 0.5 ha, and winter wheat was placed at the area of 2.0 ha. Soil type is meadow alluvial, medium-loamy in mechanical composition; humus content in soils varies from 0.7 to 0.9 mg/100 g. Generally accepted field and laboratory investigation techniques were used in the experiments. It was observed high correlation between the leaves area and crop yield - r = 0.88, and within the supply of solid and crop yield it formed r = 0.96. The highest productiveness formed the cultivar Krasnodarskaya 99 - 38.6 c/ha, which is above the standard rate for 6.7 c/ha. It represents the conformation to the high temperature, aridness and soil conditions of the region.
In Khorezm region, located in the Amudarya River lower reaches, changes in the water management and reclamation situation took place during the period from 1984 to 2012: reduction of specific annual water intake from 27 to 15 m3/ha; decline in cotton yield average for the region from 35 to 20 t/ha; permanent share of moderately and highly saline land in the region came to: 36.4% of the irrigated area (at the very beginning of the period), 46% of the monitored over a relatively long period up to the present time), and over 50% in some periods. The years of 2000, 2001, 2008 and 2011 were water shortage years on the Amudarya River; water shortage was most profound during the growing season 2001. The lowest specific annual intake was observed in dry years: 8.6 m3/ha in 2001; 10.7 m3/ha in 2008; and 9.1 m3/ha in 2011. Based on the statistic processing of long-term data by water organizations, including data on intakes, location of groundwater, salinity distribution over irrigated lands, and crops, the tendencies of low water impact on them under real conditions of the Khorezm region were determined by statistic processing. It was found that water shortage mostly affects groundwater depth as well as harvest.
Soil salinization is typically widespread on plains and in desert areas and it can lead to significant yield losses. Presently, about 50% of irrigated land in Uzbekistan is saline, 16.9% of which reached medium and high degree. Out of 13 provinces only in three ones salinization has limited distribution. Soil salinization has a severe impact on the productivity of agricultural crops; e.g. cotton crop losses due to salinity ranged from 15% to 30-40% and even to 60-80% (at low, medium and high salinity, respectively). Soil salinity combined with low moisture is mostly dangerous. Under such conditions, plants suffer double stress. The presence of salts in the soil solution leads to additional negative pressure soil moisture, a so-called osmotic pressure. This creates a difficulty in the selection of moisture the plant roots. According to Uzbek researchers, the total pressure in the root zone during the period between the first and forth cotton development phases should not exceed 4 atm. Irrigation duration for agricultural crops should consider effect of both moisture and soil salinity. In order to monitor these indicators and determine irrigation based on maximal value of osmotic potential, a simple and user-friendly methods and devices, which indirectly take into account both indicators, need to be developed.Application of electrical conductivity for soil salinity monitoring allows determining stress state of plants in practice and initiating prompt action to reduce crop losses by carrying out irrigation of plants at due time.
According to the latest scientific data, the decrease of Aral Sea water surface by more than 5.5 million hectares was registered. In a typical salt marsh, with the presence of salts and high mineralization level of groundwater, vegetation of annual halophytes is becoming more diverse. According to our research, the adaptation of various plants to the current natural environment is observed on the dried-up areas in the south-east Aral Sea. Halophytes were identified on the major dried areas with different levels of soil salinity. For elemental analysis, plant samples were obtained from various parts of dried area of the Aral Sea and, firstly, the concentration of 5 elements was determined. The content of chemical elements in plants varies considerably. For example, high natrium content in Kalidium capsicum, Climacoptera aralensis, Halostachys belangeriana, Haloxylon aphyllum and others was identified; high concentrations of chlorine were found in Kalidium capsicum. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of plant adaptation to stress environmental factors, as well as to development of strategy for periodic seeding of promising forms and plant species on dried bottom area of the Aral Sea.
The irrigated lands of Uzbekistan in semiarid zone with low humus content (0.8-0.5% Ctot) are subjected to risk of dehumification. Abundance of microbes provides the high enzymatic mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrients which are contained in it. The use of mineral fertilizers in irrigated soils contributes repeatedly increases of microbial growth rate, metabolism, respiration, energy, etc., and brings to the regrouping of microbe communities and their enzyme status. Therefore, all new agricultural chemicals should be tested for their impact on soil biological activity. For agriculture the chemicals or fertilizers, which have no significant stimulating effect on the soil hydrolytic enzymes are more preferable. The purpose of our studies was to investigate the new phosphorus fertilizer’s effect on activity of carbohydrate enzymes in typical sierozem under cotton. During 3-year field experiment three types of phosphorous fertilizers - bacterial (PhBF), organic (OMF) and mineral (MF) were studied. We compared the impact of these fertilizers on the four extracellular carbohydrate enzymes: cellulase (Cel), xylanase (Xyl), chitinase (Chit) and glucosidase (Glu). The results have shown that application of the such new fertilizers as PhBF, OMF and MF leads to decrease in activity of carbohydrates enzymes (from slight to strong effect) and to possible positive C- balance under the regular use of fertilizers.
The article discusses some experimental results obtained in the framework of the international project CALTER to study the eolian erosion in Uzbekistan in the period 2006-2010. Network monitoring has been organized for research, which included sampling points of dry atmospheric fall-out (DAF), located in different physical and geographical zones and characterized by different types of soil and wind load. As an indicator of the intensity of eolian erosion process, the flux density of dry atmospheric deposition has been selected (monthly, seasonal, annual and perennial), the particulate composition of the surface layer of soil and dry atmospheric fall-out at points of monitoring had been investigated. The influence of some meteorological parameters on the quantitative characteristics of DAF has been investigated. The obtained values of the flux density of dry deposition are comparable to characteristics traditionally used to determine the intensity of wind erosion. The proposed method is cheap and easy to use, allows covering large areas, and exploring the features of salt and dust transfer processes.
Field and laboratory studies of transboundary rivers in Uzbekistan were carried out in the fall of 2013 and the spring of 2014. The rivers were classified as rivers, small rivers, and streams. Carbon hydrogen sulfate, calcium, and magnesium were found to be the major ions in each of the rivers. The chloride and sodium concentrations were higher in the middle and lower reaches of the large rivers than in the other rivers and in the upper reaches of the large rivers. The trace element concentrations found in the water samples from the transboundary rivers were compared with the maximum allowable concentrations at the regional level. The strontium concentrations were higher in the water samples from the large rivers in drained areas than in the water samples from the other rivers. Increased content antimony, molybdenum, arsenic, and lead were detected in the rivers with low flow rates. These metals were detected in the rivers because there are ore mining and processing enterprises that cause the release of antimony, lead, zinc, and uranium in the part of the study region that the upstream parts of the rivers pass through.
Morphogenesis and structure of vegetative and generative organs of 15 species of halophytes from Chenopodiaceae Vent. and Fabaceae Lindl. grown under natural desert habitats (Kyzylkum and Mirzachul) and cultivated on non-saline (Botanical Garden, Tashkent) soils were investigated. Influences of salts of different concentration and chemical composition on seed germination of 3 species of halophytes were determined. Mineral ions content in aboveground biomass (leaf, stem and root) of Suaeda altissima from saline (Mirzachul) and non-saline (Botanical Garden) soil were similar, with the exception of an insignificant difference in ion ratios. The adaptive features of flower organs for investigated halophytes on saline and non saline habitats are discussed.
Soil salinity occurs on over 50% of the irrigated land and is one of the limiting factors for food crop production in the Central Asian region. Identification and mapping of salt-affected areas is a first step to coping with soil salinity. Traditional methods of mapping soil salinity, based on soil sampling and laboratory analyses, are time consuming and costly. Remote sensing-based approach has been developed to track historical changes in occurrences of soil salinity during the period 2000-2011. The method was tested for Syrdarya Province, Uzbekistan, where rapid salinity build-up has been recorded since 1965 when 300,000 ha of virgin land were developed based on canal irrigation. The seasonal Landsat images for the period 2000-2011 were used to calculate the radiance, reflectance and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) raster layers. The seasonal NDVI values were used to estimate the maximum annual NDVI values for three periods: 2000-2003, 2004-2007 and 2008-2011. The method was calibrated using field data from two farm unions, Gafur Gulyam and Galaba, located in two different parts of Syrdarya Province. The field data contains extensive measurements of bulk soil electrical conductivity using EM-38 and chemical analyses of soil samples. Soil salinity maps, created using Landsat images, have four classes: no salinity, low salinity, moderate salinity and high salinity. The results of soil salinity mapping indicated a significant increase in moderately saline soils from 40.7% to 45.4% and a decrease in low saline soils from 40% to 34.4% during the period 2000-2011.
Waste water from cattle-breeding complexes is known to be saturated with minerals and can directly influence productivity of crops and increase fertility of soil. Also, use of waste water for cultivation of agricultural crops saves fresh water sources and creates a possibility to meet increasing vital needs of the population in potable water. The research presented in this article is aimed at study of ponds construction to collect drains in a cattle-breeding farm and using the waste water for cultivation of agricultural crops which is necessary for efficient use of water resources. Realization of gathering waste water to deliver it for irrigation of crops in the conditions of shortage of water resources was recommended on the basis of economic calculations.
Uzbekistan is the third-largest silk producer of the world after China and India. However, the production of high-quality silk has declined since the fall of Soviet Union, due to the undermined research, development and extension institutions that lead to the local and imported silkworm eggs with unstable quality. Japan used to be the world’s top silk producer from the turn of the 20th century till the 1970s, and made the highest-quality silkworm eggs that were sought for by other countries to improve their domestic silkworms. Under the Soviet regime, Uzbekistan had limited access to those eggs. In 2009, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency began a project in Fergana Province, with the goals of increasing cocoon production and improving silk quality by the introduction of Japanese autumn-breed Kinshu × Showa and spring-breed Shungetsu × Hosho silkworms. Local Uzbek farmers proved their skills in silkworm rearing, and the Fergana fiber industry demonstrated its capability in producing good silk threads. Thus, rehabilitation of the integrated Uzbek silk production system likely depends upon maintenance and development of the introduced silkworm breeds, and effective technical extension to cocoon producers.
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology has been collaborating with the Uzbek Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources and the Uzbek Research Institute of Sericulture on two rural development projects in the Republic of Uzbekistan. This cooperative effort is sponsored by the Japan International Cooperation Agency. After concluding an initial project in the Fergana Valley, where environmental conditions are suitable for successful silkworm rearing, University staff and local Uzbek counterparts undertook follow-up research in some of the harshest climate conditions of Uzbekistan. This was done to ascertain the extent to which introduced sericulture technology might be adopted anywhere within Uzbekistan. In 2013, this follow-up project was launched in four communities of Shavat County in Uzbekistan’s Khorezm Province. The Japanese Kinshu × Showa autumn-breed and Shungetsu × Hosho spring-breed of silkworms (Bombyx mori) were distributed to cocoon producers, who received regular technical visits from the experts dispatched from Japan. All project participants were asked for their appraisal of the two introduced silkworm breeds, and associated rearing systems. They reported that they were satisfied with the increased cocoon harvests, and expressed their interest in acquisition of Japanese mulberry (Morus alba) cultivars, which they felt may better sustain the large appetites of the introduced silkworm breeds. The respondents also especially liked a laborsaving technique that uses plastic netting for quick and safe removal of leftover mulberry leaves and silkworm feces from the rearing bed. The Uzbek government has requested continued technical cooperation with the University, emphasizing silkworm foundation stock and improved breeding lines.
Djibouti is located in the north-eastern part of Africa and most of the land is covered by desert area. Although Djibouti is a country with little rainfall, the high intensity rainfall which may cause flood runoff, sometimes occurs. When such rainfall occurs in the closed watershed, rainfall water accumulates in a basin and the ponding area stays for several months. However, ponding water is lost by evaporation and infiltration to ground in a few months later without utilizing it. In order to secure irrigation water in Djibouti, we attempted to find a way to make use of the surface runoff water effectively. We selected the Kourtimalei reservoir watershed as the target area of this study. We started to record the weather data near the Kourtimalei reservoir and the water level data of the reservoir from August, 2012. We also set up rain gauges and pressure type water level gauges at three places within this watershed area in June, 2013 for observation of precipitation and temporal surface water distribution. Furthermore, we have done the field measurements on the permeability, soil texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil where the rain gauges were set. The relation between rainfall and water level at the observation point was insignificant. This result suggests that the localized runoff was a result of torrential rain within this watershed. We are in the process of collecting data, and trying to clarify the regional distribution of rain and the relationship between rainfall amount and water level of reservoir.
By installation of the latest model of fluidized bed boiler, the energy consumption efficiency is expected to become more than double. In Kyrgyz Republic, the boilers around 20 t/h are prevalent, and replacement demands of 9 cans are expected in the heat supply stations at four locations. Based on properties and varieties of coal, the Fluidized bed system would be suitable. The analysis of the coal-ash samples after combustion indicated that the unburned carbon in ash was 45% on average. Accordingly, the conversion of coal by combustion was determined to be 40%. The replacement of the existing 20 t/h boilers by fluidized bed boiler would reduce the CO2 emission of approximately 2,000 tons per year. Moreover, enhancing coal-fired heat supply station contributes to the prevention of the water related conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin area.
In this paper, we consider the results of special investigation into the composition and properties of different types of salt accumulations sampled from the surface salt crust of Solonchak in Uzbekistan. The soil profiles were dug in the dry delta of the Zeravshan River in Uzbekistan. The surface salt crust of the crusty Solonchak can be differentiated into three major morphological types. The particular minerals were diagnosed with a help of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric (TG), microscopes Olympus BX 51 and SEM. Chemical analyses of water extracts from these types of the crust suggest that all of them consist of a mixture of sodium and magnesium sulfates and chlorides with somewhat different Cl/SO4 ratios. The appearance of high alkalinity in the first type of the crust might be related to the activity of microbiota concentrated in certain microzones. Micromorphological and mineralogical investigations showed that each morphological type of the salt crust is characterized by its own paragenetic association of mineral salts with a predominance of sodium and magnesium sulfates: thenardite, mirabilite, and bloedite (astrakhanite); more careful examinations with the use of TG and SEM techniques have shown the presence of glauberite, polyhalite, and gypsum. It is important that only a combination of different investigation techniques makes it possible to identify different minerals of salts in their mixture and suggest a reliable interpretation of the obtained data.
Wood waste obtained from forestry residue was converted into chips and then later into biomass boards by the high pressure steam and compression technology without using any chemical adhesives. Our investigations showed that converting wood chips into boards before applying them as ground covers could result in more benefits such as yield improvement, soil moisture conservation, soil temperature regulation, elimination of weeding or herbicide application, and an overall improvement in soil properties. Our experiments also revealed that impregnating urea into boards could improve their moisture holding capacities, retarded soil moisture loss and served as a source of nitrogen for crops, thereby boosting their overall function as mulches. Organic mulches are mainly used with the aim of conserving moisture, lowering soil temperatures near root zones, preventing erosion, suppressing weeds, and breaking the force of rain and irrigation water. Our investigations revealed that all these benefits can be best achieved if wood waste is converted into boards before applying them as mulches in small-scale farming.
Anthropogenic desertification in the countries within the Aral Sea basin is primary determined by the salinity of irrigated soils. This paper is focused on the issues of remote monitoring of the salinity of irrigated lands. It is shown that the given problem has become very acute not only in Central Asia but also in the southern part of Russia. The experience gained in studying the soil salinity under cotton plantations can be applicable for soil monitoring in the other regions including the irrigated soils in the south of Russia.