This study investigates the characteristics and variations in the international expansion of Japanese Hotel Industry for the past 50 years. Japanese hotel industry has four international expansion phases; the first phase is “the organic growth” which Japanese hotel companies have expanded to Asia, Pacific and Europe areas gradually from 1960s to 1985. The second phase is “the rapid expansion” which the bubble economy has caused Japanese hotels to expand quickly to the US as well as the other markets from 1985-1995. The third phase is “the divestment” which most of Japanese overseas hotels have experienced divestment and/or disposal by sale because of the collapse of the bubble economy from 1996−2010, and the last phase is“ the Asia Pivot” which Japanese hotel companies have concentrated to Asia markets again since 2011. At the present, Japanese hotel companies have the long international experience, but the degree of multinationality is less than that of other hotel MNEs. And after the collapse of the bubble, the entry mode has changed from fully/partly owned operations to the non-equity alliance, that is, the management contract and franchising agreements.
The Digital Game Industry has experienced a tremendous growth in the past 15 years as it became one of the largest industrial sectors in the realm of Cultural and Entertainment Industry in the People’s Republic of China. Using the case study method， the present paper examines how China’s digital game industry has emerged and developed. Four examples are discussed which range from service adaptation，technical innovation, platform strategy implementation， and in the systematic transfer of a certain content model to a different program. The results seem to indicate adopting key services to existing environment specific to China is vital in gaining competitive advantages.
The financial sector of Cambodia has been rapidly expanding as the continuous economic growth since the middle of 1990s. Under this background, the number of microfinance institutions has been increasing, and their business activities including deposits and loans have been expanding. The microfinance institutions in Cambodia are able to be categorized into three types in terms of the business scales of institutions and the main purpose of them. 1） 39 registered microfinance institutions including 7 deposit–taking institutions are relatively large, and mainly focus on the profitability of themselves other than the poverty reduction of the people, 2） approximately 60 non-registered NGOs are relatively small and mainly focus on the poverty reduction, and 3） 38 registered NGOs are in the middle of them. The interest rate of loans of microfinance institutions has been decreasing since the middle of 2000s as the result of the severe competition among them. However, the profit rates of registered microfinance institutions are still high. The rates of non-performing loans of registered microfinance institutions are very low. Under these business conditions, 7 deposit-taking microfinance institutions try to expand their overall business for transforming their business status from the microfinance institutions to the banks. On the other hand, most of other microfinance institutions try to seek
their targeting business segments because of the lack of the funds.
How can we grasp the motorization process in the developing countries? In order to do that, we try to develop the concept of Standard Automobile Population and S-Curve. Firstly we compare the actual automobile population in each country with Standard Automobile Population, And then we analyze the divergence of the two indexes and locate the situation in the motorization process of each country. Secondly we analyze the entry user ratio and develop the S-curve. And then similarly we attempt to locate the situation in the motorization process of each country.
This paper investigates the localization process of FamilyMart in Thailand using a convenience store
business model and applying the dynamic capabilities concept. The establishment of the Japanese
convenience store franchise in Thailand can be divided into three stages: market entry （1992 to 1998）, the
first stage of growth （1999 to August 2012）, and the second stage of growth （September 2012 to 2015）.
This paper discusses how Japanese FamilyMart transferred its expertise and know-how to the Thai market and demonstrated other success factors that were critical for the convenience store’s internationalization. This study’s research method uses survey analysis, with data collected through frequent interviews with company executives in Japan and Thailand between 2013 and 2015. Additionally, historical information from newspapers and magazines, FamilyMart corporate news releases, public websites, and other corporate documents are utilized. The results of this study show that FamilyMart could not reach break-even point in Thailand until 2009 due to financial risks, political instability, and lack of a suitable local partner. The requisite dynamic capabilities were gradually formed through experience, learning, and organizational restructuring. Eventually, in 2012, FamilyMart found a good local partner in Thailand, Central Group, and successfully transferred its expertise and know-how to the Thai market.
This paper examines the growth of Hoa Phat Group and Hoa Sen Group, two private companies in Vietnam, and their achievement of leading status in the long and flat sectors of the local iron and steel industry. Both companies have benefitted from innovations in the production system and market-oriented management that exploited local market conditions and factor endowment. Compared to state owned enterprises and other private companies, HPG and HSG exhibited speedier and more valiant managerial behaviors. Moreover, they adopted technology and focused on market segments ignored by foreign companies. HPG’s organizational behavior is regarded as catch-down innovation while HSG demonstrated the initial stage of disruptive innovation. However, both companies have been forced to adapt their corporate strategies with the disappearance of favorable local conditions given global competitive pressures.
The purpose of this study is to consider the decision making and implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility （CSR） strategies and the effect they've had on the nature of pharmaceutical companies. We shall clarify the characteristics and the current state of CSR strategies in Japanese and Korean pharmaceutical companies.
Since their inception, both Japanese and Korean pharmaceutical companies have recognized the responsibilities that arise naturally from their roles in society and have sought to implement CSR into their core business strategies. As a result, it becomes clear that pharmaceutical companies have considered CSR strategies with respect to the nature of their business model.
Furthermore, strategic models of CSR that have been deployed by Japanese pharmaceutical companies are centered around the type of social market formation, whereas responsive models of CSR that have been deployed by Korean pharmaceutical companies are centered around the type of the profits returned to society. These differences highlight the characteristics and the current state of CSR strategies in the pharmaceutical companies of both countries. Moreover, the major factors that are considered to have an effect on these differences are the extent of globalization, company size, company profits and relationships with international NGOs/NPOs.
In the automobile industry, the Japanese supplier system has been evaluated as one of the crucial factors which support the growth of the industry in history. Regarding the previous research of automotive parts suppliers, “Drawings supplied” and “Drawings Approved” features are recognized as one of standard methods which are used to evaluate the technological capability of suppliers. However, accompanied with the technological progresses, the advanced development phase for both auto-makers and their suppliers is becoming to be considered more and more important, and this phase is implemented ahead of yielding “the drawings”. Moreover, the supplier engaged in the advanced development phase may not be properly assessed based on the previous research. Thus, it is worth discussing the relationship between auto-makers and their suppliers on which focus the advanced development phase. This thesis uses the case study of Denso Germany and Denso Japan which present the No.1 Japanese automotive supplier, to analyze the contribution of Japanese supplier in the advanced development phase by transaction governance theory framework. In addition, it suggests the two possibilities for Japanese suppliers with plans to expand their business in China.
This paper uses the concept “intrinsic core” and “ancillary capability” to deal with the formation, current status and future issues of China’s software development enterprises for the Japanese market, and the conclusions are as follows:
1） Until a few years ago, the Chinese market was able to provide low cost programmers and system engineers to Japanese IT vendors. However, in recent years，China has lost the “ancillary capability” of low cost. This is due to an increase in labor costs. 2） Due to many years’ experience within the software development, the ability to provide high value service provision has become the new “capability ancillary” in China’s software development enterprises. The key to improving this “ancillary capability” further is the training of bridge SE, and during the training of the bridge SE, it is very important to know the culture and business habits of Japan. 3） Large enterprises such as DHC and Neusoft already have “core intrinsic”. In addition to continuing to develop the Japanese market, the ability to apply to the Chinese market is the important issues of China’s software development enterprises.
The emergence of Chinese enterprises’ outward foreign direct investment（ OFDI） has a significant impact on the existing FDI theories. Most traditional theories have been trying to seek the driving factors of MNEs’ FDI behaviors based on the cause-and-effect logic. However, such an approach just depending on objective conditions does not fit well with the explanation of the Chinese enterprises’ OFDIs because their OFDIs are so unique and energetic that they are beyond logical theories. Therefore, in order to describe Chinese enterprises OFDI, this study proposes a two-factor model with both objective and subjective factors. In this model, corporate managers’ ambitions to achieve corporate globalization are especially emphasized as a subjective factor. Based on this two-factor model, this study claims that Chinese enterprises’ OFDI has the features of the internal factors-driven investment.
There are many colonial historical heritages built by Russia and Japan in Lüshun, Dalian, China. Because they include cultural-prosperities, ”Biyushan Tower” and Battle field named 203 kochi as war remains, and they symbolize old colonial ages’ memories, many people have very offensive feelings. But this field survey of August 2012 made clear three points. First, these historical heritages especially Russian Railway Station Building and Yamato Hotel building’s architectural style should be evaluated as tourism resources. Second, conserving and reuse those colonial historical heritages as tourism recourses and develop those areas as tourism spots are useful to accelerate the regional economic development. Third, transfer of right of land use to local government from military will be needed.
This paper describes the development process and dynamics of market competition in China’s NC machine tool industry. China developed an NC machine tool in the 1950s, at almost the same time as in developed countries. However, due to bottlenecks in the NC system, the development of the industry suffered longterm delays. The Chinese NC machine tool industry really began in the 1990s. In terms of Today’s market competition, state-owned, private, and foreign-funded enterprises are exerting competitiveness in their respective product areas, while, at the same time, remaining in a complementary relationship. State-owned enterprises have a technical advantage over private enterprises in terms of mid-priced products, but the technological advancement of private enterprises will become the key to raising technical standards within the NC machine tool industry in the future.
China is forming to the world’s largest auto market. Since the 1990s, the automobile industry with the development of the Chinese economy has been developing rapidly. And in 2009 it was pulled out of Japan’s automobile production to be the No.1 in the world.
Underpinning the expansion of the vast Chinese automotive market, there are nothing but the formation and development of mass distribution system and mass production system. This paper will focus on large mass distribution system, and will take the China’s Auto-mall as the consideration object.
Firstly, present the newly status of the Chinese automotive market, and rearrange the history which it become it be for now. And then make the Auto-mall market analyzes about location trends from provincial level to the inside market, further consideration from consumer’s behavior and to discuss the possibility of Auto-mall market in China in future years.
This essay shows Morgan’s Self-organization theory and Weick’s ESR sequence theory can be utilized to analyze and respond ESG issues for Asian companies and in Asia. The USA Government initiative to stop public finance toward all coal fired power plant in Oct. 2013, which has been followed by World Bank, ADB, KfW and Governments of Nordic countries and France, may not reduce global CO2 emission, as this does not satisfy requisite variety of Morgan’s Self-organization. Chinese banks and China lead AIIB and BRICs Bank may not follow this initiative and finance to low efficient coal fired power plant made by Chinese companies. JBIC is requested not to follow this initiative but to extend finance to high efficient coal fired power plant as second best strategy for reducing global CO2 emission. Carrefour has suspended shrimp import from CP Foods, Thailand. CP Foods failed in CSR procurement as it did not satisfy to build the whole into the parts of Morgan’s Self-organization.
Adani Mining, India faced Australian Court judgement to stop of its coal exploration project in Australia. Vedanta Resources, Indian oriented LSE listing company, was forced to stop its bauxite project in India as it mistook social issue with environmental issue. These can be explained that those mistook response to ESG issues with neglecting Weick’s feedback of ESR sequence. On the contrary, Nestle India’s response toward sales stop order of its instant noodle by the Federal Government with recall and administrative court petition for revocation the administrative order can be supported under Weick’s ESR sequence.
ISO 26000 for Social Responsibility Guidance can be introduced without certificate toward companies and
organizations with shame effect under Self-organization and/or ESR sequence. Those theories can be proposed not only to analyze ESG issues for Asian companies but also to be utilized by them for ESG issues.