In Asia, “manufacturing network” based on international division of labor, has been changing in recent years. In other words, although Japan’s competitiveness was high, the competitiveness of South Korea, Taiwan and China has increased in recent years, and the geopolitical balance of Asia is changing. The development of “manufacturing network” in Asia was analyzed, focusing on cases of Liquid Crystal Display （LCD） industry in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China, especially cases of Sharp, and Sharp and Hon Hai alliance. As the result, Sharp’s first failure was excessive investment in the Sakai factory and that the second failure was not sense the disruptive innovation in Chinese smartphones market. In order to get out of the crisis caused by these failures, Sharp made the alliance with Hon Hai. This alliance between Sharp and Hon Hai triggered to enter to a new stage of Asian “manufacturing network.” Hon Hai and Sharp have a complementary relationship. Sharp is strong in R&D, especially in LCD technologies, and has the Sharp brand. Hon Hai is strong at manufacturing, but lacks its own brand. This alliance crate new products with “co-creation.” I propose the global“ co-creation” value chain model. The proposed“ co-creation” value chain is a model which creates value by “co-creation” by “inter-organization knowledge creation” using each other’s advantages, by overcoming simple vertical integration. The global “manufacturing network” has entered a new stage to shift to the“ co-creation” value chain, triggered by Sharp and Hong Hai alliance,
This paper aims to propose a new framework for retail internationalization, especially for the sustainable growth of a retailer in the Asian markets. It discusses why we need to apply the embeddedness concept when investigating the process of internationalization, after studying relevant literature on these subjects. It then proceeds to discuss the factors influencing embeddedness and the differences between localization and embeddedness. Additionally, this paper proposes an analysis framework, which applies the embeddedness concept identified by Hess （2004） combined with the “Convenience Business Model” by Chung （2016a）. It also recommends that embeddedness should be investigated from both the “temporal” and “spatial” angle. Finally, the paper introduces corporate social responsibility as a complementary activity during the embeddedness process of retail internationalization.
The development of information and communication technology since the 1990s has spawned a new
business model of ICT-based services outsourcing by the US and European firms. Outsourcing and offshoring
of such ICT-based services were not limited to advanced countries and have spread out to offshore
destinations in emerging countries. Entering this century, while India gets the lion’s share of offshoring and
outsourcing markets, East Asian countries, such as China, the Philippines and Vietnam, are now catching up.
Offshoring of business process services is not popular among Japanese firms. They prefer captive offshoring
to offshore outsourcing and have been slowly but steadily expanding the offshoring since the turn of the
20th century. In Japan ICT user firms, like manufacturing firms, have been more internationalized compared
to ICT firms, and engaged in promoting ICT-based business offshoring processes in China, Vietnam, etc. In
this article we try to grasp offshoring operations of ICT-based services and examine future prospects and
significance of Japanese firms ICT-based services’ shift towards East Asia.
In terms of business strategies among global automotive suppliers, it is generally thought that the earlier a
supplier becomes involved in OEMs’ advanced development phase, the greater the possibility of that supplier
being selected as a mass production supplier. While the use of this strategy can lead to increased profits and
company growth, it is absolutely inappropriate in transacting with local Chinese OEMs （COEMs）. This is
because with COEMs, the advanced development phase is typically outsourced to independent engineering
companies, thus eliminating the need for supplier involvement in that phase. Despite such market constraints,
Japanese suppliers are aggressive about approaching COEMs as strategic cooperation partners. This paper
takes up the case study of Denso China, and examines transactions between Denso and COEMs, from the
advanced development phase to mass production; this is done to determine how transaction governance
contributes to reduced costs and improved quality, and to mitigating opportunism.
This paper insists the basic and overall proposals that could completely solve the abandoned vehicles
problems in Pacific Islands Countries. The proposals in this paper are firstly based on the previous paper’s
analysis of the causes of the abandoned vehicles in Pacific Islands Countries. Our proposals aim at not only
preventing the abandoned vehicles again, but also removing the accumulated and long term abandoned
vehicles thoroughly. Our proposals consist of four basic proposals. Core one, third basic proposal in this
paper, however, is related with the improvement of economic profitability of the scrapping firms. In order to
improve the economic profitability of the scrapping firms, we have to present special proposals to overcome
the handicaps with which the Pacific Islands Countries confront. Those handicaps are its smallness, long
distance and dispersiveness. Other three basic proposals are related to overcome these handicaps. The first
basic proposal is to offer the incentives to the Pacific Islands Countries people to bring their disused vehicles
（Life End of Vehicles : LEV） to the scrapping factories. Second basic proposal is that local government and
scrapping firm try to remove thoroughly the accumulated and long term abandoned vehicles by utilizing the
Japan Automobile Recycling Promotion Center’s special fund. The last one, the fourth basic proposal in this
paper, is that Japanese government establishes the Buying and Bringing Back Center （BBB Center）, which
buy the recycle materials and used parts from the scrapping firm and bring back them to Japan. At the same
time BBB Center controls whole process of recycling scheme.
Huawei （i.e. Huawei Technology Co., Ltd.）, a leading ICT （Information Communication Technology）
company in China, has many aspects that have not been disclosed due to its rapid growth and its name
recognition. This paper aims to draw attention to Huawei’s Employee Stock Ownership Plan which is a
feature of the company, in order to draw out its development stages and to organize the knowledge derived
First, this paper starts with depicting the appearance of Huawei’s Employee Stock Ownership Plan based
on matters extracted from published materials such as annual reports, books, websites, news reports, etc.
Through this work, the author purposes a hypothesis on what kind of change has occurred in Huawei's
founder who introduced Employee Stock Ownership Plan with intention. Next, the author conducts interviews
with employees. By doing so, the author clarifies the history of Huawei’s reconstructed Employee Stock
Ownership Plan based on collected notes. The reason for combining published data and data from interviews
is to capture the situation close to reality.
In conclusion, in this paper derives the following points. Initially, Huawei introduced the Employee Stock
Ownership Plan primarily for the purpose of raising funds, but then led to the Employee Stock Ownership
Plan for the purpose of holding excellent talents in their company. Specifically, the plan and facts have
changed into four stages. In other words, while maintaining the formal continuity of the Employee Stock
Ownership Plan, the plan has a substantial discontinuity from funding purpose to human resources objective.
Now the plan selects only those who are“ excellent companion” instead of treating“ everyone as a companion”.
It is noteworthy that this transition indicates that Huawei has become a typical result-oriented company.
The regional ecosystem of the software and IT-enabled （ITE） services industry in Dalian, China, was set up through the cooperation among the government, universities, enterprises, etc. Thereafter, different regional ecosystems were formed at different stages, while continuing to evolve all the time. In this process, the local government played a great role in the industrial development, the promulgation of industrial policy, the recruitment of talent and provision of training and support, the construction of platforms, and so on. In this study, the regional ecosystem of this industry of Dalian is divided into three periods: formation, growth, and transition. During the formation period, the government connected local elements and with the cooperation of key persons, formed the regional ecosystem to promote this industry. During the growth period, the regional development and the reinforcement of enterprises in Dalian enabled further integration to reconstruct the regional ecosystem. During the transition period, the government is focusing on quantitative expansion and quality enhancement, with the aim of developing the regional ecosystem. However, to qualitatively change the regional ecosystem, new demand and the mechanism of forming a new system must be obtained.
The Chinese market of smartphone became the largest in the world beyond the United States in 2012, which currently occupies about 30% in the world market. At the same time, as to the shipments of the Chinese smartphone makers, their market share in the global market has rapidly increased from 20% or less in 2011 to 40% or more in 2016. Almost all makers occupying the top position till 2013 were foreign-funded makers concerning the market share by makers in the Chinese smartphone market. But Xiaomi started its smartphone production & sales from the middle half of 2011. It increased to the top position referring to the shipments of the Chinese smartphone market just within 3 years and kept top for two consecutive years. But as for its growth rate, its growth declined from 2015, and its market ranking decreased to the fifth place from the top in 2016 as well.
This paper analyzes the growth factors of a Chinese smartphone maker which has emerged in the world market and the relevant issues encountered with, by focusing on Xiaomi, which used to occupy the top position in Chinese smartphone market regarding market shipments in 2014 and 2015, and has declined from its rapid growth.
This study investigates the significance of codes of conduct in corporate social responsibility （CSR）. In particular, it focuses on the United Nations Global Compact （hereinafter referred to as UN Global Compact）, the world’s largest initiative for sustainability. Although there are sometimes conflicts between firms, international organisations, and non-governmental organisations （NGO） due to the behaviour of firms from developed countries in developing countries, the relationship between firms and such organisations has partially changed in the global context. Firms have adopted voluntary codes of conduct for their CSR management drafted by international institutions and/or NGOs like the United Nations, International Standard Organization （ISO） and Global Reporting Initiative. Not only do firms adopt the codes and/or guidelines provided by these organisations, but they can also participate in the redaction process for each of these codes and work with other stakeholders to seek solutions regarding their CSR issues. Moreover, these codes have been constructed as part of the management environment in CSR, which is one of the most important agendas for firms with respect to their international management. Therefore, it is believed that firms need to actively participate in the new environment-making process. A lot of literature focuses on the positive side of the adaptation of codes. However, there are also negative sides to all of this, such as some firms being delisted because they fail to implement the guidelines requested by the UN Global Compact. Using the data of delisted participants, this study sheds light on features of Japanese firms through a comparative study. Japanese companies tend not to participate in the dialogue and projects, but most of them choose to not participate once they started participating, whereas many small and medium-sized enterprises tend to withdraw from the UN Global Compact.
Business incubators could be classified into three types as Public-for nonprofit-incubator, Private-for nonprofit-incubator, and Private-for profit-incubator. Otherwise, networking activities of business incubator include internal activities which refer networking activities between incubator manager and tenant or between tenants, and external activities which refer networking activities among incubator and external institutions in regional eco-system. Based on network theory, this paper analyses the cases of three incubator types in Shenzhen, China, and make it clear what are differences of internal networking activities and external networking activities among the three incubator types. We found that the Private-for profit incubator is most effective at networking activities than other two types and the Private-for nonprofit incubator is more flexible about external networking activities.
From 2009, China is keeping No.1 automobile sales up to today over the world. In 2016 approximately 29milion units of vehicle was sold in China market. But Japanese automobile makers, such as Toyota, Nissan and Honda are behind Volks Wagen Group, General Motors and Hyudai Group. In this paper, I will make clear the reasons, from introduction model to market and development capability （especially manpower of Research and Development Division） points of view.
The segment of volume zone has shifted from Small-Low to SUV. Especially Small SUV has rapidly increased. Nissan introduced large number of Small-Low models successfully, but delayed introduced Small SUV models. Honda introduced Small-Low models, unsuccessfully, but recent years introduced large number of Medium models and Small SUV models. The share of Honda is up to No.1 among Japanese makers. Toyota introduced a few number of model in Small-Low and SUV. As the result in 2016, Toyota is the third place.
Toyota has so many models, which are developed over the world. But Toyota introduced smaller number of model than Nissan and Honda in China market. It is found that there are no relationship number of introduced models to China and manpower of Research and Development Division at Headquarter.
This essay advises Japanese FDI in Asia to take connectivity and altruism as its most important management principle. The Governments of Asian nations welcome FDI with economic incentives to appeal investor’s economic egoism and control FDI with nationalism in alliance with local big companies which sometimes neglect local public interest. In Asia globalization proceeds along with maintaining or strengthening national sovereignity,excluding hyper-globalization. Asian values sometimes neglect human rights and economic democracy. Those regulative examples are shown in FDI negative list of Indonesia and Philippines or Thai Alien business law. Those business cases are shown in the entry and exit of Seven Eleven Indonesia, the equity localization of copper mining Freeport Indonesia, or environmental pollution by tin mining Thai FDI-Myanmar Phongpipat with defamation crime of Thai media.
Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis show in their “A Cooperative Species” that tolerant egoist may win in market competition among tolerant egoist, intolerant egoist （including greedy capitalist）, tolerant altruist, and intolerant altruist （including nationalist） and intolerant altruist may win in hard conflict and hostile situation where market competition can not work. This indicates if Asian nationalists challenge FDI under conflict situation, FDI will fail. But Japanese FDI may survive from nationalists attacks if it takes tolerant altruism to appeal other stakeholders except nationalists with public interest and tolerant egoism. And to get profit as a tolerant egoist, the Japanese FDI may utilize connectivity with the third country business. This idea is supported by Parag Khanna with his “Connectography.” He says that connectivity among mega-cities and SEZ with global supply chains and logistics via crossborder public infrastructures is more important than state-borders in emerging global network civilization. To realize connectivity and altruism oriented management,the Japanese FDI may utilize concept of indifference zone by C.Barnard for its local managements and staffs.
In Korea, it sometimes happens that the individual who should take responsibility in the face of an accident is too easily able to neglect his duty, as exemplified by cases such as scandals arising from cosy relations between the government of the day and chaebols, or the captain of a ship or conductor being able to retreat from the location of an accident. Why do they act with such selfishness? This study focuses on a selection of Korean occupational ethics in the context of the identification system and Confucianism of the Li dynasty.
The points clarified in this paper are as follows. Merchants and craftworkers established their own occupational ethics despite the Yangban’s disdain for them from the point of view of the identification system and Confucianism. The problem is that occupational ethics could not be established among the Yangban. In addition, there is the effect of the absence of Yangbando (similar to Bushido) leading to a lack of awareness of job responsibility.
It is essential for the top of the organisation to （1） respect the work of merchants and craftworkers, （2） reeducate the‘nobles oblige’ and （3） revive an ethical spirit like the Seonbi spirit that once existed in Korea.
In Mekong sub-region countries, the economic growth rate has been high since in the middle of 1990’s. Under this background, many Japanese manufacturing companies set up their factories as the strategies of China plus one and/or Thailand plus one. Following these companies, many Japanese companies in service sectors made foreign direct investment in these countries. The number of Japanese hotels has been also increasing since 2010. The features of these investments are 1） Locations are mainly the capital of these countries and big cities, on the other hand, tourist areas are rare case. 2） Main expected customers are business persons, mainly employees of Japanese companies, on the other hand, tourists are additional targets. 3） Most of these hotels are operated by Japanese hotel chains such as Hotel Okura group, Toyoko inn hotel group, Super hotel group, Route inn hotel group, and Kuretake hotel group. However, some hotels are set up by companies in different industries. 4） The management systems are mainly lease scheme for the purpose of the initial cost reduction and the risk mitigation. Some hotels are also planning to set up new hotels, and the number of Japanese hotels will be increasing in these region.