“Thailand 4.0” which is aimed as the long-term vision for the Thai society was announced in 2015. A provision about electric data used for customs clearance was introduced in the former Customs code 21. Version in 2014. November 13 in 2017, a new Customs code was implemented in Thailand.
In this study, we see the outline of the Customs clearance and logistic system in Thailand in the Fourth industrial revolution and consider impact to companies such as Japanese companies in the future.
In recent years, Multinational Corporations （MNCs） are rapidly increasing purchasing and procurement as they expand their plants to explore global markets and facing significant challenges for managing increasingly complex global operations in Asian countries. In particular, as the manufacturing technology of suppliers in China has made rapid progress and the supply base has been well developed, the number of MNCs that set up the International Procurement/Purchasing Office （IPO） for doing global sourcing in China is increasing. This paper aims to discuss the development and evaluation of the Chinese IPO according to the headquarters’global procurement strategy development. We clarify the IPO deployment process and the evolution of its roles, to discuss the roles played by an IPO at the different process of evolution and the change of roles over time. We also consider factors of the evolution. We find that the purchasing and procurement department at the headquarters and the Chinese IPO allocate international functions and share roles in global procurement, the IPOs carry out global procurement while proactively involving collaboration and interaction with headquarter and foreign subsidiaries.
Hoshin Kanri （HK） as a management control practices vary considerably between organizations, although all tend to conform to a similar framework and concept. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on Toyota’s Kaizen activities based on corporate Hoshin （strategic direction） and identify how Toyota’s transplant in china uses HK to pursue the Kaizen activities continuously and create organizational learning capabilities successfully. I conducted a 2-week fieldwork and observed Hoshin planning and its implementing process. A variety of qualitative data indicates top-down and bottom-up HK planning process. Both top-management and middle-management pay attention to personal autonomy of frontline employees and their personal development. Also, data indicates that climate for learning is generated by management efforts and the organizational learning culture. As a conclusion, HK plays not only a strategy implementation function as previous research shows, but also a motivating and training function through OJT as well in Toyota’s transplant.
The purpose is to reveal the evolution process of foreign subsidiary related to multiple functions based on the case of Isuzu Motors in Thailand. Isuzu Motors established factory in Thailand in 1962. It established development center in 1992. Isuzu Motors focus on production for pickup truck from Japan to Thailand in 2002. It assigns the role of model change for development center in Thailand in 2010.
As a result, it is important for evolution of foreign subsidiary that transfer management resources from head quarter, head oﬃce assignment, local environment, the mutual interaction of each function. In particular, the evolution of production function facilitates the evolution of development function. And the evolution of development function facilitates the evolution of production function.
The most notable aspect of the revision of the Vietnam Labor Law in 2019 is the acceptance of the formation of independent trade unions at the grassroots level. In unions under the socialist system, managers representing the interests of employer have been legally granted the status of pure workers and have been allowed to join unions. Without a demarcation line between labor and management, conﬂicts of interest arise in capitalist corporate organizations. Furthermore, the permanent employment and labor system of Japanese companies causes downward rigidity of wage for high-paying managers. In case that those managers take advantage of the union and try to protect their vested interests, increased labor costs will weigh on the management of Japanese companies in the medium to long term. In addition, the risk of intensiﬁed labor struggles by independent unions increases. The composition of labor-management relations is complicated by the intervention of various interest groups and stakeholders. Therefore, it is necessary for Japanese companies to provide ﬂexibility in employment and wage structures under the line of labor and management by complying with the new legal system. Meanwhile there is also an urgent need for Japanese companies to establish a mechanism to maintain the conventional labor-management harmony and to create an integrated corporate community. This paper analyzes the related laws and presents the direction of solutions of labor-management cooperation based on hypotheses.
Job-Hopping has been one of the most persistent problems for Japanese companies doing business in Taiwan. Job-hopping makes local workers’ skill training harder. So, most of Japanese companies, especially in service industry, have abandoned their own job training and asked local partner companies to deal with human resource matters. As a result, the service standard of Japanese companies in Taiwan has been “adjusted” to local level gradually, that is, unintended localization of service. However, recently, as Taiwanese service market has saturated and many Taiwanese people travel to Japan and have experienced local Japanese service, they also expect Japanese companies in Taiwan to offer same standard of service as in Japan. But it is almost impossible to offer same standard service as in Japan using local workers without special training. Consequently, Japanese companies must consider developing local workers ’skill by themselves without compromise.
Preceding studies pointed that Japanese companies showed narrower “space of developing career” to local workers than Western companies, so it was the reason why, job-hopping was more frequent in Japanese companies comparing to Western companies. Therefore, this study hypothesizes that “wider space of developing career” would work effectively for retention of local workers. So, this study made an interview to one of Japanese restaurant companies which succeeded in retention management, and found that one of key factors for good retention in the company was the establishment of “area manager position, which is a manager of several restaurants”. In other words, “expansion of space of developing career” worked effectively for retention. It also found that “expansion of space of developing career” worked for good retention in Taiwanese hotel company. Consequently, this study finds that wider “space of developing career” works for better retention for employees, it also works for Japanese service companies in Taiwan.
With the spread of mobile payments, decentralized financial solutions, improved transparency, and advanced automation will reduce disruption to traditional industries and practices. These forces are in the process of revolutionizing the user experience while simultaneously improving the efficiency of the financial system. In this paper, we have studied Sweden, which is often said to be a cashless country and has a cash usage rate of only 13%, and China, which has attracted the world’s attention because of rapidly spread mobile payments. We will elucidate how mobile payments were used in Sweden and China. In addition, by comparing these two countries, we will clarify the identity and differences that make mobile payments popular. We will also analyze the impact of mobile payments on both countries. Based on that, it suggests that the mobile payment acceptance model provides a good foundation.
This study examines transaction governance within distribution networks of multinational companies（MNCs） in a developing country by using multiple case studies of Vietnam’s motorcycle industry. We found that issues associated with the local context, such as counterfeit problems and the existence of unauthorized sub-dealers, affect transaction governance. Under these issues, contractual governance, coercive power, and mitigating methods are common in the MNC-dealer relationship. Specifically, strict monitoring and coercion, based on contract stipulations, maintain product and service quality and ensure brand protection. Mitigating methods, including improvement of brand power, relationship-specific investments, and communication, are used to balance power asymmetry and induce collaborations. Consequently, MNCs successfully train dealers on quality management in distribution, which in turn, affect dealer and sub-dealer transaction governance. In other words, indirect governance is used to strengthen quality management in unofficial channels that MNCs cannot control. Despite this success, false reporting and dissatisfaction of some dealers implies that there are trade-offs inherent in these governance methods. Adjusting the intensity of use of each governance method to balance the trade-offs is important. For MNCs that are the target of counterfeiting, it is necessary to consider increasing rewards in ranking systems, investments, and communication when using strict channel management. This paper furthers the understanding of transaction governance in MNCs’distribution
networks in a developing country.
This essay shows management environment in Asia has changed to it under Post-modern civilization from it under Modern civilization. It sometimes seems that FDI profit making under market competition is unfriendly attitude by stakeholders of companies in Asia. Institutional environment, sentiments of consumers, employees and local and world stakeholders of Japanese FDI have changed to sentiments of Post-modern civilization. I show Post-modern sentiments in Asia with Nationalism, ESG, NPO and PPP Infrastructure projects. In April 2016, the Indonesian Government instructed INPEX to modify Abadi LNG project from offshore LNG to onshore LNG which would make 500bil. yen cost up. This policy change was coincident with natural resources Nationalism shown in capital localization of Batu Hijau and Grasberg copper mines. In June 2019, INPEX at last agreed with this cost up. In Aug. 2019, Kirin Holding has been requested to divest from two 51% owning beer brewery JVFDI in Myanmar by the Report of Rohinga Special Envoy of United
Nations. Kirin CSV Report 2019 seems to commit a Whitewash of this human right issue. Alibaba ESG Report 2018 seems to commit a Whitewash to deteriorate corporate governance issue of special stocks named “Partnership System” with role in the areas of leadership succession, human capital management, business ethics and social responsibility. Capital policies of Alibaba and Binh Group,Vietnam commit skip-creaming. All Asian governments commit skip-creaming in their PPP infrastructure projects with neglecting VfM in their PPP regulations and risk transfers to investors. Meaningful management shall be requested to appeal difference with supporting or coaching. I propose new management strategies such Nationalism with export competitiveness and ESG oriented management. I apply Data-driven economy, Teal organization and Three layers in Transaction cost economy to Post-modern management in Asia.