This study examines the management of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) in Japan by focusing on marketing and comparing “professional nonprofits” that obtain their revenue from sources such as commercial activities with “volunteer nonprofits” that rely on financial resources such as donations and membership fees. A pilot study conducted in 2014 found that although majority of the NPOs were financially strained, professional nonprofits were financially well placed than volunteer nonprofits. In this study, these two different types of NPOs are compared in terms of marketing perceptions, practices, and the issues that they face. The study’s sample group responded to questionnaires that had been developed based on existing marketing literature. The results indicated that professional nonprofits are “marketing oriented,” adopt more marketing approaches than volunteer nonprofits, and are less likely to struggle with issues such as lack of financial resources, aging personnel, lack of a donation culture, and the lack of public recognition of NPOs and their activities. In-depth interviews will be undertaken in future research to explore the detailed reasons for these responses, which will provide key insights for nonprofit management.