In this paper, I address a number of the issues that lie behind the development of partnerships between government, business and the voluntary and community sector in England. I identify the main driving forces that lie behind these developments; move on to assess what the partners bring to the relationship and then explore what some of the consequences have been both for the partners themselves and for the wider public. In my conclusions, I sketch a number of ways in which the relationship might develop and point to a number of potential sources of stress.
To date, there are little or no examples known of real integrative and sustainable partnerships between companies and voluntary organisations in the Netherlands. It is concluded that besides a Direct approach to these partnerships, a unique Dutch or Indirect approach is taken in which local mediators bring companies, voluntary organisations and the local government together. A set of common characteristics regarding partnering perspective, barriers and success factors, is introduced as a basis to interpret and compare both perspectives. It is stated that both a (lacking) definition and (lacking) success factors are at the basis of understanding and overcoming barriers to a partnerships’ evolution.
This paper reflects on the necessity of cross-sectoral partnerships and criteria for their success from the perspective of a practitioner who has been involved in international exchange for nearly four decades. There are many reasons for the increased need seen worldwide for partnerships between civil society, government, corporations, and others, but the most significant factor is the impact of globalization. Simply repeating the mantra of “partnerships,” however, will not result in their actualization. The development of partnerships requires strategic thinking, a proper mindset, and a good deal of hard work. The article points to a number of specific prerequisites for creating effective partnerships. The first is autonomy. Without autonomy, an organization or individual cannot form effective partnerships. On the other hand, by partnering with many organizations or individuals rather than forming a one-on-one partnership, the autonomy and independence of an organization can be maintained. The second prerequisite is expertise. Partnerships between organizations that have complementary areas of expertise will produce a higher quality of activities. Third, trust between the individuals involved in the partnership is critical. While there are always certain difficulties involved in working with people outside one’s immediate circle, those difficulties are more than compensated for by the creation of human networks built on trust between individuals who are striving to address common objectives.
Charitable giving is considered to be an important mode of civic activity indispensable to a truly sound democracy. Although the Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995 helped raise public awareness of the important role nonprofit organizations play in social betterment, Japanese giving behavior is still less active compared to that in other developed countries. Through a comparative analysis of giving culture in Japan and the United States, this paper identifies several explanatory factors behind the weak culture of philanthropy in Japan and presents five policy and management strategies to encourage charitable giving among Japanese people.