Malodor (halitosis/bad breath) has been a major concern for people through the ages. Despite the fact that odorless breath does not exist, we worry about other peoples’ reactions to our breath. Even if bad breath is purely physiological, the odor can intensify depending on a person’s health condition and levels of stress and anxiety. In some individuals, however, bad breath is caused by disease with no subjective symptoms. Because of the uniqueness of olfactory perception, it is difficult to assess the severity of one’s odor, which causes anxiety. Here, recognizing bad breath as an odor and manifestation of emotional stress, we discuss the management of bad breath and introduce the Japanese Academy of Malodor Syndrome Guidelines.
Halitosis is reported to be caused by many malodor compounds such as volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan yielded in mouth The VSCs also have a bad influence on periodontium, and cause the discoloration of dental alloy. Thus, the adsorbent which highly adsorbs VSCs should be useful for health in mouth and may prevent teeth from decaying. We have investigated the H2S adsorptive properties of zeolite, Ag doped zeolite and hydrotalcite. The material was placed into H2S gas or water containing H2S (H2S water) sealed in glass flask, and then the change in concentrations of H2S was measured using gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (FPD-GC). The H2S adsorptive property of zeolite was remarkably improved by the addition of Ag, but a ceratin amount of Ag was detected in the H2S water. H2S was found to be adsorbed onto hydrotalcite materials heat-treated at 500°Cin aqueous solution, and the sulfide was found to be included between layers of the hydrotalcite structure. The microporous ceramic material should be expected to be an adsorbent material, useful for maintaining goof health in the mouth.
Removing tongue coating （TC）, which is mainly composed of protein, is known to reduce volatile sulfur compounds （VSCs） in mouth air. The aim of this study was to evaluate tablets designed to remove TC effectively. The tablets contain a protease, actinidine, and form rough surface while licking for effective scrubbing of tongue surface. The subjects licked the tablets containing/without protease three times, and their TC was evaluated. The VSCs concentration in mouth air was measured by gas-chromatography before and after licking each tablet. The group taken the tablets containing protease reduced TC than that taken the tablets without protease. By licking protease-containing tablets, the score for TC was decreased, and the concentrations of hydrogen sulfate and methylmercaptane in mouth air were reduced significantly.
To evaluate the effect of eucalyptus extract on oral malodor, a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial with chewing gum containing eucalyptus extract was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to the following groups; a high-concentration (use of 0.6% eucalyptus-extract chewing gum) group, a low-concentration (use of 0.4% eucalyptus-extract chewing gum) group, and a placebo (use of chewing gum without eucalyptus extract) group. The intake period was 12 weeks. The organoleptic score, level of total volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), and tongue-coating score were recorded at baseline and 4, 8, 12, and 14 weeks. Group-time interactions revealed significant reductions in the organoleptic score, level of total VSCs, and tongue-coating score in both concentration groups compared to the placebo group [Tanaka et al, J. Periodontol., 81, 1564-1571, (2010)].