Spices aroused the marine adventure person’s dream and also caused the war of spices. Spices had big influence on the history in the world as a result. Why was there such any influence in spices? Then, the reason is explained using Maslow’s need hierarchy theory.
Spices were used as medicine, cosmetics or food. The desires to medicine are safety
needs. The desires to cosmetics are self-esteem needs. On the other hand, the desires to food are physiological drives. These physiological drives are considered to be the cause which had big influence on the history in the world.
Then, the history of spices is improved from the viewpoint of directions for use.
Flowering plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family have become one of the most favorite potherbs. In this study, we discuss the approaches taken for the aroma evaluation of potherbs such as rosemary and sweet basil, which belong to the Lamiaceae family and are associated with sensory evaluation. We report that there are two phenomena involved. One was botanical whereby individual peltate glandular trichomes in rosemary were filled with different types of essential oils. The other was an effect that some aroma compounds, generated secondarily, had on the perceived aroma of dried sweet basil.
Ingestion of hot-water extract and volatile fraction of winter savory were effective in alleviating decrease in the peripheral body temperature of people who experience cold sensitivity. Carvacrol was found to be one of the active ingredients in winter savory.〔Masuda, H. et al. : Food Sci. Technol. Res.17, 429-436 (2011). Masuda, H. et al. : Food Sci. Technol. Res.19, 1085-1092, (2013).〕．
Contents of essential oils and flavor profiles of spices and herbs are important to determine their qualities. Herbal plants are predominant in the ability of enhanced biosynthesis pathway for flavor compounds and the capacity to store such secreted compounds. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms for biosynthesis and regulation of flavor compounds which have been clarified recently in the herbal plants. Furthermore, metabolic engineering approaches for the improvement or the modification of flavor profiles are introduced.
GC-MS was used to detect substances of the offensive odor. And it was very difficult to understand the main substances which contribute the offensive odor in the eluted solution by the analysis of GC-MS peaks, because the offensive odor was constituted from many kinds of odorous substances.
In this research, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to fractionate the extracted solution of pig’s feces at every 10ml, and odor test and GC-MS analysis were conducted for each fraction. The substances having high boiling temperature in the pig’s feces were targeted because those remain much offensive odor compare to the volatile substances. The thresholds of twelve odorous substances were determined, and the converted value of each odorous substance was obtained by dividing the concentration of the odorous substance by the threshold respectively.
The contribution of each odorous substance to offensive odor was evaluated by analyzing the change of characteristic odor and converted values of odorous substances in the GPC eluted fraction. Skatole showed the strongest contribution to the offensive odor and the contribution decreased in the odor of isopentanoic acid, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, p-cresol, n-butyric acid, n-pentanoic acid, indol, propanoic acid, n-hexanoic acid, isobutyric acid, and phenol. Odor strength of phenylacetic acid was thought to be high, but not calculated the converted value of odorous substances because of absence of the standard material.