This paper presents some basic guidelines for applying the “you-attitude” to business messages. The “you-attitude” is a traditional and fundamental business communication axiom‚ but most textbooks have provided only general or selectively specific guidelines. To implement a “you-attitude‚” the communicator should begin by defining the purpose relating to the recipient's needs‚ emphasize the recipient's benefits‚ show respect by adopting strategies from linguistic politeness theories‚ use positive expressions‚ favor plain language‚ produce powerful visual effects‚ and supply precise data in precise diction. These guidelines could be integrated into the memorable and usable principles of the “Seven Ps”: Be Purposeful‚ Profitable‚ Polite‚ Positive‚ Plain‚ Powerful‚ and Precise. The principles of the Seven Ps are tentatively formulated and their validity is examined further.
It is said that Korea and Japan have some similarities in terms of education. One example is that students study in preparation to take the university entrance examinations, and the curriculum of most schools is determined by the contents of these entrance examinations to a large extent. In addition, many parents enroll their children in cram schools from an early age. There is a considerable difference, however, in terms of when to start English education. In Korea, present college students started to learn English when they are at elementary school as it is a required subject. In Japan, though, the number of students who studied English from such an early time is limited. The purpose of this study is to compare the intensity of motivation to study English and the kind of motivation between Korean college students and Japanese college students.
In the field of Second Language Acquisition, learner motivation and attitudes toward the target language has been well researched over the last thirty years. Scholars in this field have been adopting insightful views related to motivation from other fields, such as social psychology, cognitive psychology, and educational psychology. In Japan, more than half of all high school graduates go on to pursue a college education. Recently however, society' s expectation of universities has changed dramatically-their role is now expected to include motivating those students who seem reluctant to study and show little interest in learning, either a foreign language or other subjects. The aim of this article is to review of such demotivated learner states, by reviewing previously written articles and focusing on social factors in order to find ways to develop motivation in such students.
A discussion of results and a conclusion in a research article each offer detailed information about findings of the study and their importance. A discussion of results provides convincing data in paragraphs with a subheading of “Results” that support laws, theories or principles, and it explains the results in paragraphs with a subheading of “Discussion.” A conclusion, usually shown in paragraphs with a subheading of “Conclusion,” presents the summary of results and the applicability and influence of the research. Many articles in Nature, however, have no paragraphs with a subheading of “Conclusion” because a discussion of results in such articles includes the content of a conclusion in paragraphs with a subheading of “Discussion.” In producing the text, the selection of verbs, especially predicatives, and of their forms in the tense, aspect, mood and voice greatly determine the effectiveness of the sentences. The verbs giving results are most effective in the simple past or sometimes in the present perfect, but those giving universally acknowledged truths should be in the simple present. Modal verbs can also be used. May, could, can and might are often used to show lower possibility, and will is used in the sentence mentioning the future study.
This paper aims to analyze the placement of punctuation marks, especially commas and periods, in relation to quotation marks. It suggests that the most striking point within the quote-punctuation placement is the difference between the British and American usages in the case of commas and periods. Universal American usage places commas and periods inside the quotation marks, regardless of logic, while in the British usage, punctuation marks go inside quotation marks if they relate to the words quoted, outside if they relate to the main sentence. Why the difference? It appears that the British usage upholds logic, while the American one follows convention. The findings are mainly based on the examination of articles of some major American and British newspapers as well as of stylebooks of leading U.S. wireservices.