Important source material for oil is lipid and cellulose for methane gas. All organic matters deposited in the sedimentary rocks should have been destined to be for either oil, methane gas, coal or oil shale in accordance with their chemical composition and quality. Productive oil has been squeezed out from source sediments into porous strata in the for of "protopetroleum" emulsion. The squeeze out should have continued until the water content of the source sediments declined to 20% or the source sediments were buried 700m deep. Thereafter, the protopetroleum emulsion was transformed into real oil by low temperature thermo-energy within the porous strata. To the contrary, methane gas may have been generated in the source sediments at any time within 3 million years after their deposition. Wax and sulfur in crude oil are intrinsical components originated from the source material. Evolution of oil is affected by geological time and environment as follows: (1) differentiation of oil into types through inclined reservoir rock after the accumulation, (2) lightening of oil by precipitation of asphalts, (3) decolorization of oil through secondary migration, (4) changing of oil into condensate oil as the result of precipitation of heavy asphalts caused by high pressure gas invasion, (5) production of light aromatics in oil by abnormal high pressure within the acidic pyroclastic reservoir rocks, (6) metamorphose of oil affected by high temperature in the reservoir rocks, and (7) oxidation of oil by invasion of rain-water resulting in the destruction of normal parafins.
A method for determining lateral effective thermal conductivity in a radial flowsystem is presented. The analytical and experimental studies were carried by using a radial flowmodel. The experimental apparatus used is shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. It was packed withglass-beases. The apparatus was designed as a wedge-shaped vessel (see Fig. 4). Lateral effectivethermal conductivity may be calculated by Eq. (3) which is called Yagi and Kunii's equation.The relations between temperature, distance, flowrate and stagnant effective thermal conductivityetc. in a radial flow condition are expressed in Eq. (5), Eq. (6) and Eq. (10), respectively. Then, stagnant effective thermal conductivity λ0 and lateral effective thermal conductivityλe may be calculated from the measured value obtained in the experiments. The distribution oftemperature in the radial flow model was estimated Eq. (8) by substituting the value of λe deter-mined in this study. As the results, close agreement between measured and calculated values onthe distribution of temperature was obtained.
In view of current world crisis, it is definitely necessary to study petroleum energy model. The LP (linear programming) model can be applied to obtain the optimum demand-supply structure of petroleum and natural gas. This paper describes the principle of LP and actual calculation procedure for several simplified examples. Solutions of these examples show to some extent the utility of this application of the LP model. In addition, a flow chart is shown for the use of computer.
第1回東南アジア海洋会議が2月17日から20日までシンガポールにて開催され,興味ある議論が展開された。著者は今回これに出席する機会を得たので,その概要を報告したい(なお次回は1978年開催が予定されている)。 この会議はSociety of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), The Southeast Asia Petroleum Exploration Society (SEAPEX), The Society of Naval Architects of Singapore (SONAS), The UN Committee for Co-ordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resou-rces in Asian Off shore Area (CCOP), Petroleum News Southeast Asiaの共同主催で開催され,CCOP以外の各機関がそれぞれ独自のテーマのSessionを受け持つ形で会議が進められた。著者の出席したSessionはSEAPEXのみであったので,以下の報告ではSEAPEXSessionに焦点をしぼって述べることにする。 SEAPEX Sessionに提出された論文は2つの範疇に分類される。第1の論文は東アジアにおける探鉱史を概観したもので,これに基づいて現在の経済的,政治的状況を分析し,さらに将来における探鉱活動の趨勢を予測している。その他の論文はいずれもフィリピン,インドネシア,タイ,インド等における地質と海洋開発技術(Offshore Technology)を扱ったものである。