石油技術協会誌
Online ISSN : 1881-4131
Print ISSN : 0370-9868
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56 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
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  • 増田 昌敬
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 1-11
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    To study how the viscoelastic flow behavior of polymer solution described in Part. 1 (ref. 1) had an effect on oil-recovery performance, 1 D flood experiments were carried out with glass-bead packed cores. Two white mineral oils of viscosity about 25mPa•s and 50mPa•s were used as displaced fluids. In each experiment, water and polymer floods were done with the same core at a relatively-high flooding velocity above 16μm/s. In polymer floods, polymer concentration of effluents was measured by the spectrophotometric method of M.W. SCOGGINS and J.W. MILLER.
    In polymer floods, oil was recovered faster as flooding velocity became faster. In high flooding velocity, interstitial velocity of polymer solution in the core becomes high and shear rate for flow becomes larger, too. The viscoelastic flow behavior of polymer solution that increased its viscosity with increasing shear rate was thought to improve mobility ratio and make oil recovery faster. By analysis of polymer-concentration histories of effluents, water bank was observed to be produced from the core before breakthrough of injected polymer solution. This water bank was thought to originate from mobile water which was initially present in the core before the flood. The histories of pressure of oil and water phase at the center of cores during flood experiments were measured separately with semi-permeable filters made of teflon and ceramics. Oil pressure could be measured well, but the method to measure water pressure was remained to be a problem.
    These data obtained in this study will be compared with calculated results by the simulater in the next paper.
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  • 齊藤 隆, 金森 邦夫, 熊谷 誠
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 16-27
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 多田 良平
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 28-39
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 名取 博夫, 渡部 芳夫, 角井 朝昭
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 40-50
    公開日: 2008/03/27
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  • 鈴木 宇耕
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 51-63
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Concerning the origin and structural developments of sedimentary basins, detailed case studies were made in the eastern part of the Sea of Japan and the Beibu Gulf of China where enough well data and seismic data were accumulated. Through these studies, a quantitative analysis for the subsidence of sedimentary basin was investigated. Three patterns were recognized for the subsidence of these basins such as 1) the isostatic initial subsidence, 2) the thermal subsidence, and 3) the flexure. Each of them is deeply associated with the evolution of sedimentary basins.
    This analysis seems to be an effective approach for the comprehensive evaluation of the sedimentary basins, therefore a detailed procedure for the analysis will be introduced.
    From this study, the developments of the basins in the Sea of Japan and the Beibu Gulf were summarized as follows:
    1. Phase of the isostatic initial subsidence.
    a. The eastern part of the Sea of Japan subsided with rates of 16 times larger in comparison with that of the Beibu Gulf. In the eastern part of the Sea of Japan, subsidence with such a large scale in short time could be resulted from prominent volcanic activities of the final stage of the Green Tuff movement.
    b. The both basins subsided to about 3, 000m in depth. Main structural elements such as grabens were formed in this phase. It is believed that the important source rocks deposited in the end of this phase.
    c. Some important reservoirs are developed in the Green-tuff Formation in Japan. In the Beibu Gulf, similar reservoirs are not developed because of weak volcanic activities there, and sandstones are important reservoirs of this phase.
    2. Phase of the thermal subsidence.
    a. Crustal thinning (24-32km) caused the conversion of relatively thickened asthenosphere to slightly more dense mantle lid and the basins subsided slowly in accordance with the movement.
    b. The ultimate amount of thermal subsidence (Do) of the eastern part of the Sea of Japan is larger than that of the Beibu Gulf. Thus the sediments in the Sea of Japan are greater than the Beibu Gulf.
    c. Remarkable structural movements in large scale during this phase did not take place in both areas. Therefore, only stratigraphic traps and anticlines which resulted from differential compaction are expected in this phase.
    3. Phase of the flexure.
    a. Subsidence in this phase was more vigorous because of plate deflections accelerated by thick sedimentary load in comparison with that of the preceding phase.
    b. Flexural rigidity in the eastern part of the Sea of Japan is smaller than that of the Beibu Gulf, therefore, deflections of the crust of the Sea of Japan are larger.
    c. Tilting of the basin led to reactivation of faults, decollement movements and gravity gliding, and structural traps were formed in this phase.
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  • 中山 一夫
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 64-75
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Geochemical framework coupled with fluid flow model makes up an integrated computer system for basin evaluation in actual petroleum exploration. The model in high dimensions are believed to be more sophisticated and to result in better solutions, however, a functionally-restricted one-dimensional model is also useful for evaluations of exploration potentials in frontier basins, where only sparse geologic data are obtainable. Two- or three-dimensional model needs more precise geologic data for its appropriate results, therefore, it might not work properly with such sparse data. One-dimensional model, which simulates petroleum generation and expulsion process under an independent cell condition, is successfully applied for this type of exploration setting. Using newly-developed version of maturity model, the method of determining paleo-heat flow is also discussed.
    In the applications, the procedure sequence for one-dimensional basin analysis is introduced using the data from only one well in the Abu Dhabi area. Multi-well analysis is also demonstrated for areal evaluation of source rock potential in the Northwest Jawa area.
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  • 大熊 宏, 中島 健一, 水津 雅裕
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 76-85
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Construction of a realistic and efficient basin analysis model is one of the primary objectives of Japan National Oil Corporation's research project “Correlation Technology of Crude Oil and Source Rocks.” It started in 1988 and is planned to be completed in 1992; the completed model will be equipped with an I/O system that will utilize digitizers and engineering workstations to facilitate its use.
    As the phenomena of oil generation and migration, particularly that of the primary migration, are not well known today, the aforementioned JNOC research project includes the relevant laboratory experiments. To quickly respond to and cope with the knowledge resulting from these experiments, it was decided to develop a generation-migration model of relatively small size separately from a sedimentation model. Therefore, the aim of this compact model was to seek, without spending excessive computer time, the mathematical description which satisfactorily reproduce laboratory observations, and at the same time to find the most suitable numerical technique to approximate the mathematical problem.
    After two years of research and programming, the first version model was completed and tested. This report briefly describes this oil generation-migration model and then shows the calculation results of a few example runs that simulate some features of laboratory experiments.
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  • 指宿 敦志, 中山 一夫, 国安 稔, 小玉 喜三郎
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 86-95
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Petroleum explorations become more difficult recently, because its target is deeper and the trap types are more, complicated. This paper presents discussion about timing between formation of deep-seated fracture reservoir and trapping hydrocarbon (generation, migration and accumulation) in an area of the Hokkaido region.
    Tectonic stress is thought to be a main driving force of fracturing. In this tectonic simulation, formation and development of fracture in every sedimentation step is reproduced by using Virtual Basement Displacement Method (KODAMA et al., 1985). The plastic strain that formed fractured reservoir tends to concentrate in the surrounding area of Well A during all the geologic time except a period of depositing e formation. On the other hand, there are not so significant concentration around Wells B and C through the time. It can be thought that Well A and its surrounding area seem to be favorable for forming fractured reservoir.
    For the hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation simulation, large permeability value is input to a position of large plasitic strain observed by the tectonic simulation in order to investigate effect of tectonic fracturing. It is an evidence from the experiments by the model that fluid pressure around Well D should increase without tectonic fracturing whereas no excess pressure would be observed in the case that tectonic fracturing has occurred. This result is supported by the fact that density logging from Well D shows that all the data are plotted on the normal trend and there are no indication for abnormal pressure while drilling. Gas saturation around Well A is also higher as a result of effective flow into the reservoirs by the tectonic fracturing. The peak of generation rate of oil and gas exist during the period of depositing d formation and e formation.
    As a conclusion of the study of these simulations, the area has enough hydroacarbon generation potential. However, focusing on formation of the trap (fractured reservoir), Well A and its surrounding area has a possibility of forming fractured oil and gas field.
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  • ダグラス ウェイプルズ
    56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 96-107
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    現在ベースン•モデリングにおいては, 様々な現象を数式を用いて再現する手法が多用されており, Deterministic Models (決定論的モデル) と呼ばれている。しかし, この手法にも多くの弱点がある。つまり, (1)数式の不正確さ, (2)数式中の定数の不正確さ, および(3)入力データの誤差などである。小論では「浸透率」を題材にそれらの弱点を補う幾つかの新手法について言及する。
    フラクタル理論の根底にある自己相似性 (Self-similarity) とは, あるスケールに見られるパターンが他のスケールにおいても見られるということである。この考え方を用いれば, 貯留岩のコア試料から得られた小さいスケールの浸透率の実測値から, キャリア•ベッドという大きなスケールの有効浸透率を見積もることが可能となる。またこの考え方はフラクチャー浸透率を見積もる時にも有効であろう。自己相似性を用いる方法は,これまで考えられている以上に応用が広いと思われる。
    浸透率は, 異常高圧層の存在を予測したり, 正常異常を問わず泥質岩からの流体の排出量を推定したりする上で必要である。ここで提案する新しい方法とは, 静水圧勾配が保持されうる最大の堆積速度で埋没が進行したと思われる地域から得られる経験的な種々のデータから浸透率を推定するものである。すなわち, 対象とした地域から実測値として得られる, 孔隙率の対深度分布, 水の粘性, 圧縮率, 層厚, 近年の堆積速度等のパラメーターから浸透率を逆算しようというものである。こうして, 得られた値を用いることによって単純に実測された浸透率をダルシーの法則に当てはめて排出量を求める従来のモデル計算よりかなり実際に近い量を推定できることになるであろう。
    低浸透率な岩石においては, 張力によるフラクチャー (Tensional Fracture) が流体移動を支配する主な要因と成り得る。このフラクチャーの存在と強度は応力-歪関係から予想することができる。またフラクチャーの程度は, 震探データや異常高圧層の形成に関連して観察される経験的な地質データに見い出だすことができる断層パターンに自己相似性の概念を応用すればある程度見積もることができるかもしれない。
    油層工学を支配している日常的な時間スケールと堆積盆を支配している地質学的な時間スケールには大きな隔たりがあり, それ故油層工学の分野において重要なことも, ベースン・モデリングの分野においては実際上意味がなくなることがある。ベースン•モデリングにおいて最も重要なのは, シールの浸透率と水や炭化水素を排出する際の細粒な岩石の浸透率である。さらに, 水平方向に長距離の流体移動を可能にする浸透率の最小値を見い出だすことも重要である。岩石一般に関して信頼性のあるそのようなデータを得ることがこれからのベースン•モデリング研究の主たる関心事となるべきであろう。
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  • 56 巻 (1991) 1 号 p. 108-115
    公開日: 2008/03/27
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