A new mathematical model was constructed to express flow behavior of polymer solution for two-phase flow of oil and the solution. By combining the fractional flow theory proposed by G. A. Pope with this model, a simple simulator was developed to predict performances of polymer flood. In this simulator, permeability reduction owing to adsorption of polymer molecules was modeled by reduction of hydraulic radius for flow of the solution. Two parameters (C*, mc) dependent on pore structure and fluid relaxation time were used to calculate the viscoelastic flow behavior of polymer solution. Calculated performances were compared with experimental data of 1D polymer flood described in the previous paper (ref. 5). The simulator could reproduce the experimental data well when viscoelastic flow behavior was assumed. By model calculations, the viscoelastic effects of polymer solution on oil recovery were foand to (1) increase flow resistance in two-phase flow, (2) make breakthrough saturation of polymer solution higher by shifting fractional flow curve to higher saturation, and (3) make oil recovery faster, therefore.
On the geological scale, earth history yields vital information concerning past environments and climates. This highlights the urgency for increased collaborative international response and research into solutions of problems posed by current climatic changes, whether natural or induced by the activities of man. Climatic changes occur on variety of timescales, ranging from catastrophic volcanic eruptions (minutes or days), through gradual changes in Earth's orbital parameters (104-106 years) to tectonically driven changes (106-108 years). It seems likely that the long-term fluctuations of climates (less than the time-scale of planetary evolution), which give rise to glacial epochs, are largely determined by continental plate distributions and movement, whilst the shorter-term fluctuations which produce glacial and inter-glacial periods in glacial epochs reflect variations in coming solar radiation. Attention is focussed on the possible existence of an anoxygenic, primeval atmosphere and on the history of atmospheric CO2. Five great biologic revolutions have occurred through earth history that have fundamentally shaped the modern geochemical picture. It is significant that organisms have controlled their own environment. Organic CO2 and calcium budget have played critical roles.