“Petrojarl 1” is the first purpose-built monohull type unit in the world for early production and well testing. This report presents its main features such as the turret mooring system, the process plant, the off-loading system and the riser system together with its operational experiences since 1986 in the North Sea.
Mitsubishi Corporation is taking part in the North West Shelf LNG project together with Mitsui & Co., Ltd. This project encompasses multiple phases of vertically integrated LNG business, which are exploration, development and production of natural gas, liquefaction of natural gas, transportation and marketing of LNG. On the other hand, as a horizontal axis, the project does not only produce such by-products of LNG as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and condensate, but also supplies natural gas to the Australian domestic market and produces crude oil. I introduced a part of this huge and complex project.
Over 25 years ago, the Internet was launched by DOD (U.S. Department of Defense) for the purpose of data exchange among 4 super computer centers of ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) located in the USA which is known as ARPANet in 1969. Then ARPANet adopted TCP/IP as its data transferring protocol. Although its specification has been modified and upgraded in lots of part. The Internet is still using TCP/IP as its protocol. The Internet was restricted for the commercial use for 20 years until we had the first commercial ISP (Internet Service Provider) which was founded in the USA in 1989. In Japan, same as USA we had been restricted until IIJ started its Internet connection service in 1993. Since the commercial Internet service is available, the number of the Internet users has been growing up rapidly and the same time, so many applications over the Internet have been developed. In the future, we expect more convenient applications and we expect rapid increase of users accordingly.
Internet and World Wide Web have been introduced in business market these days and number of uses received some benefit from this communication system are increasing every day. This paper introduces the use of Internet as a business tool in the E & P world from our experiences of using SINet; Schlumberger Information Network System. The paper introduces the use of Internet and WWW as a tool to exchange, transmit, and open information to company employee. In SINet world, Schlumberger employee use E-mail to exchange messages and to distribute information and also uses Web browser to access WWW site available world wide to extract products technical information internally. SINet system also allowed Employ to access external world using E-mail and WWW browser to receive information from public domain database. Computer environment infrastructure based on software and hardware standard. The benefits to the E & P business using this modern computer based technologies were also discussed through Schlumberger's past experiences of building this world biggest private network system.
Recently, the usage of internet becomes very popular and the function of internet facilities such as e-mail, ftp and WWW bring us a variety of advantages in the activities of the academic societies. However at the same time, some disadvantages are also brought by the Internet. In this paper, both the merits and demerits of it were discussed based on the personal experiences. The great contribution of Internet is that it clears off the restraint of location and time in the communication. Everyone can have an equal opportunity to access to the information. The wide usage of Internet has brought the change of activity evaluation scheme in the university. Conventionally, the major element for activity evaluation is an academic “paper”. However after the popularization of Internet, additional elements such as “prize, patent, product and performance” seem to be added as the evaluation factors. On the contrary, unfavorable phenomena were sometimes seen in the academic societies. Many people are enforced to use Internet facilities. There still exists the big difference in the network environment between the public sector and private sector. The complicated network management sometimes leads to the collapse of the network system, especially in the university, when the new semester has begun. This is because the university stuff can hardly manage the network system. Anyone has the pressure to accelerate the job by the quick response of e-mail, etc. Finally, the followings are the key messages in this paper. • Internet is one of the best tool to share the intellectual properties……(ftp, file share) • Internet is a mechanism to collect and concentrate the people's enthusiasm……(mailing list) • Internet is a tool to represent oneself……(home page) • Internet is only atmosphere……(generate no value in itself) • Internet is a drug……(method turn to object) • Internet is an accessory……(feel superiority) Then, Internet has a potential to change the university.
Early observations of the increase in hydrocarbon generation with depth in sedimentary basins came from Lakaskaya and Zhabrev (1964). Vassoevich (1969) described this intensive generation zone as representing the “principal phase of oil formation”. Later, the intensive oil generation zone was known by the terms such as “oil window”, “oil kitchen”, “oil generation curve”, etc. However, Cooles et al. (1986) pointed out that “oil generation curve” is a misnomer as the increase in oil is the net result of the three processes of oil generation, oil expulsion and oil cracking to gas, and gave the algebraic scheme based on mass balance calculations of generated and expelled petroleum. On the other hand, Pepper (1991) and Sandvik et al. (1992) proposed that absorption on a cross-linked polymer (kerogen) is the dominant retention mode for generated oil in source rocks.These models for the generation of oil and gas are based on two end-member scenarios: open system and closed system, which are equivalent to assuming that the residence times of the bitumen species in source rocks are either zero or infinite. In this report, it is discussed that various features of “oil generation curve” appeared in forms such as intervals between threshold and end of intense oil generation, peak height of hydrocarbon ratio and double peak are controlled by the combination of factors such as a variation in kerogen types, geological heating rates, and the differences in absorption levels by kerogen types besides oil expulsion. Conclusively, it is emphasized that it is important in petroleum exploration to analyze sedimentary basins, in particular, the young back-are basin of the Neogene age, Northeast Japan, from the viewpoint of whether actual petroleum basins belong to a semi-open or a semi-closed system, which will be indicated by geochemical features mentioned above.
Geostatistics has been recognized as a powerful tool for the reservoir characterization since it can integrate geological, geophysical, and reservoir engineering data. Generally, the measurements derived from the well data are relatively precise, however, they are located limitedly in the reservoir. On the contrary, seismic data is obtained uniformly in the reservoir area, and therefore, very useful in the reservoir characterization. The relationship between seismic information and reservoir properties is still not clear because of its limitation of frequency band width, low S/N ratio, and the ambiguity of the data. Thus, the relationships may vary with region and with depth. In order to deal with such ambiguous relations, geostatistical techniques, such as cokriging and cosimulation, have been adopted since they are probabilistic approaches. Also geostatistics can integrate well and seismic data in order to estimate the spatial distribution of reservoir properties. A case study of reservoir characterization in the Amarume oil field is presented in this paper by using the geostatistics. The acoustic impedance was derived from the 3-D seismic volume by the inversion method. A relationship between acoustic impedance and lithology can be observed in and around the sand reservoir. In this field, the sand formations show lower impedance, compared with other lithological layers. Applying this relationship, we can infer the spatial distribution of sand formations on the 2-D section tying the two wells. The Sequential Indicator Cosimulation (SICOSIM), which is one of the geostatistical methods, was applied in this analysis. And equiprobable multi-realizations of the sand distribution were estimated. These realizations are consistent with both well log data and seismic data.
Computer networking has become a critical tool for petroleum engineers. The Computer Sub-Committee under the Drilling Technology Committee has been investigating topics related to the effective utilization of computers and software. In this paper, Internet and “Patio” in the Japanese computer network NIFTY-Serve are introduced as part of our recent activities.
Reservoir characterization is a keyword common to geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers. It needs inversion analysis through human knowledge and/or mathematical methods. Comparing types of inversion work routinely done by “-ists” and “-ers”, the author refers to AHM (automatic history matching) technique, viewing from its current and future potential, and proposes MWO (Monitoring While Operation) concept which might be effective for realizing good quality of reservoir characterization.