Drilling engineering education in universities has historically been closely tied to the oil and gas industries and based on a one-industry discipline.The professors have taught courses and specialized skills that would satisfy the demand from drilling experts. However, drilling engineers of the future must be educated to have skills to solve problems and to develop new technologies with a good knowledge of mathematics, computer programming, geoscience, management, etc. Drilling engineers must learn the following abilities in ten years after being hired by oil companies: (1) Fundamental knowledge and technical skills related to drilling operation; (2) Problem solving skills by experiments and data analysis; (3) Techniques of numericel modeling and analysis; (4) Risk analysis, petroleum economics, and basic knowledge of related areas like geology, exploration geophysics, logging, reservoir engineering, production engineering; (5) Data management and business skills; and (6) Teamwork and cultural awareness. To educate these abilities, university and company education have their own responsibility. This paper describes the state of the art and the problems of petroleum engineering education in five Japanese universities: University of Tokyo, Waseda University, Kyushu University, Tohoku University and Akita University. The academic program and system in these universities are gradually changing to cope with the recent structural changes in Japanese industry. The percentage of students continuing graduate education is steadily rising, while very few students find employment in petroleum industry. To improve the quality and value of petroleum engineering education, the universities need technical and financial support by private companies and government organization.
Japanese oil companies play the role of maintaining or extending the amount of reserves both domestically and overseas for Japan. In recent years, exploration and development cost have increased dramatically as the well depths are much extended, well locations move further to remote areas and water depths go deeper. Environmental protection requires more complicated techniques and careful management of drilling activities, which boost up total expenditure of projects incurred. These trends make the finance of operators greatly tight and restricted. Besides, these difficulties are compounded by an upsurge of resource nationalism among the oil-producing countries, the price of oil hovering the lower level, and the unfavorable exchange rates for Japanese yen to U. S. dollar. Under such desperate circumstances we are demanded to complete our objectives more precisely and efficiently than ever by devoting our abilities to the work. Thus a comprehensive educational program must be one of the key issues to achieve our goal by cultivating knowledge of individuals. In view of the above, this paper introduces an in-house training program of JAPER (Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd.) that is composed of the followings: 1) education for new employee 2) education for drilling engineer 3) training for dirlling crew 4) in-house seminar
For technologists of foreign oil producing countries, TRC started JNOC-TRC Overseas Training Program in 1989, in which JNOC invited overseas technologists to Japan, paying all their costs including air fare and living expenses during their stay in Japan. There are two purposes for JNOC to hold this program. One is to strengthen the relationship between Japan and oil producing nations by enhancing human relations, and the other is that Japan would like to make contributions to the advancement of the world petroleum development technologies as being one of the largest oil consumers. TRC holds four courses each with a duration of three months, i.e., Reservoir Engineering, Geophysics, Advanced Drilling Management, and Exploration Geology. Three of the four are being held every year. Each course is mainly composed of lectures, workshops and field trips given and guided by experts. Additionally, Japanese language classes, orientation programs for learning Japanese culture and short trips inside Japan are included. Since the Training Program started in 1989, total 22 of the courses has been conducted, and 334 of overseas technologists were participated as of June, 1996. The participants are from a variety of countries in Asia, Africa, Former Soviet Union, the Middle East and South America, which names of the countries are: China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Iran, U.A.E., Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Yemen, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Egypt, Algeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Nigeria, Angola, Zaire, Gabon, Papua New Guinea and Peru. Saudi Arabia, Russia, Turkmenistan, Mexico and Venezuela are the countries which are newly participated in the JNOC-TRC Training Program in 1996. Along with the current JNOC-TRC Overseas Training Program, JNOC Fellowship Program is established in 1996, which is arranged for the overseas technologists from oil producing countries. The program is carried out by Japanese oil companies at their facilities or at certain universities.
Overseas training for drilling engineers is an important part of man power development policy in Teikoku Oil Company. This paper introduces chronological records of overseas training, training items and training companies.
In oil and gas drilling field, the most serious accident is the blowout that comes after kicks. Therefore well-control technique and skill is very important to prevent blowout. Many companies and various organizations are considering well-control training is very important for rig safety. The existing state of well- control seminar and the current movement in this area are introduced here.
In petroleum industry, several drilling troubles occur and have a large influence over the cost of the well and the well itself. Recent studies by major oil companies reported that their training program on drilling troubles, for example “stuck pipe”, dramatically reduced the cost and the number of incidents in their operations. This program included both guidelines and manuals, and the course was attended not only by engineers but also rig personnel including service contractors. Besides JNOC-TRC Drilling and Completion Laboratory focuses on efficient drilling from well cost reduction points of view. This paper introduces these trainings and the analyses of them as one part of this study to spread the ideas and information to the engineers here in Japan. To further enhancement of their knowledge in this area.
This paper describes on the HSE Management Plan which has been established as the company policy for quality operation by Japan Drilling Co., Ltd (JDC). The HSE Management Plan is a management system on health, safety and environment which is very emphasized in oil industry to prevent an accident since Load Cullen's report was published after the investigation of the Piper Alpha disaster in July 1988. JDC considers that the implementation of the HSE Management Plan will produce a sustainable and on going improvements in HSE performance by influencing the behavior of people in the organization, from top management down through all levels of the workforce, and then accident free quality services can be delivered to a client.
All the operators have carried out site surveys including a shallow seismic, however a lot of operators and drilling contractors have encountered shallow gas blowouts resulted in severe rig damage. Especially many bottom-supported rigs such as platforms and jack-ups have been seriously damaged from shallow gas blowouts. For the purpose of safer operation on a rig site, the Safety and Environment Center for Petroleum Development (SEC) is developing a new advisory system for shallow gas kick handling. The system consists of two parts, one is an expert module and another a shallow gas simulator module. These functions are also suitable for use by well planners and training personnel before spudding-in a well.
The brightness, or gray level, under transmitted-light microscope was measured on numbers of pollen grains of Pinus, Podocarpus, Abies, Picea and Tsuga from Neogene sediments in Northern Japan by means of computer-aided digital image processor. The mode value of the brightness distribution was assigned as a brightness indicator for each pollen grain. The mean value of all the modes for the complete array of these pollen types which are interpreted as indigenous in each rock sample was labeled as “statistical Thermal Alteration Index” (stTAI) for the sample. The present investigation identified an inverse relationship between stTAI and vitrinite reflectance (Ro). The application of stTAI to samples from the MITI Yuri-oki-chubu borehole revealed a decreasing trend with depth, and the threshold of intense oil generation was identified at about 2, 000m. This is in harmony with the interpretation based on the trend of Ro, especially in sediments shallower than 1, 600m. The Ro trend in deeper sediments is disturbed probably by a lithological effect. Therefore, stTAI is a potentially useful parameter for determining organic maturity and identifying the threshold of intense oil generation.
This paper describes the evaluation of activities of isolated anaerobes mentioned in the previous report. These anaerobes were incubated in culture bottles packed with silica sands, and after cultivation amount of gases produced, pH and interfacial tension of media were measured, as well as total growth. Results show that there are effective anaerobes which have gas and acid productivities in porous media. The lowest pH of 3.4 was obtained with Strain 8L. The matabolic gas analysis shows that the main components are carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Especially, Strain 4D, 7A-1 and 9A produced a large amount of carbon dioxide. From the economic point of view, the 4% molasess medium without any additives was also used for cultivation, and it was found that Strain 7A-1 and 9A out of 6 strains maintained their abilities as high as in the case of cultivation in the medium of molasses with Nutrient Broth. In addition, the growth rate and penetration ability of Strain 9A in porous media were evaluated. Results showed the micro culture space had a small effect on its growth rate, but no effect on the total growth, and Strain 9A was able to move freely through the sandpack. All the results so far mentioned imply that at least Strain 9A may be applicable to MEOR.
This serial technical introduction have already described the fundamentals of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and the basic research which incrude sampling, screening and evaluating techniques of microbes. In Part 3, following topics are introduced; (1) history of MEOR field trials, (2) screening criteria of MEOR application, (3) procedure of field operation and (4) conclusion of this series. History is divided three parts (i. e. early period, middle one and the present) and each period is explained in historical order. Limitation of MEOR application to real reservoir is described from many points of view; formation type, depth, temperature, porosity, permeability and so on. Finally, a field test reported in Romania is presented by way of example to show the operating procedure.