Now we might be in urgent conditions. We notice, whether we like it or not, detoriolated natural environments or anomalous weathers. Nature does not seem to be in harmony with human activities. Extended and multiplied human activities might demand the earth far beyond she could offer. High productivity in industry and agriculture in the advanced countries is resulted from spending energy from fossil fuels available in low cost. But CO2 gas emitted in burning fossil fuels is now accumulating in atmosphere, whose outcome is greenhouse effect and acid rain. Human history tells us, however, that we experienced getting over several crises at the brink of disturbing the stable equilibrium in nature with technology and wisdom.
In Hokkaido, demand for energy has increased accompanying with economical growth. Hokkaido is mostly dependent on oil as an energy. Therefore, its energy security is out of control by Hokkaido. Hokkaido has been making effort to contribute to stabilization of Hokkaido's future energy supply by means of development of oil-alternative energy sources and education of energy-saving through possibility of the both the public and private power. Hokkaido Government is promoting to convert economically and technically difficult-to-use energy resources, to available energy sources, in stead of utilizing conventional energy sources for so many years. This project is called New Energy and Local Energy Vision, which is promoting tecnhical development and utilization of new energy sources, such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, cold energy, fuel cell and others.
This lecture introduces histories and present conditions of development of mineral resources in Hokkaido. The history of gold digging goes back to 12th century. But systematic development of mineral resources started from Meiji era especially for coal. Lyman's geological survey in this period established a foundation of mining industry in Hokkaido. Metal, non-metal and coal minings and oil development grew rapidly during the World War I. And metal, non-metal and coal minings reached their highest production during the World War II. But the mining industries started declining from mid-1950's. Especially severe decline took place in coal mining due to its high production cost. Activities of oil and gas exploration started increasing in 1970's according to MITI's exploratory drilling program as the fourth five-year-project. And Yufutsu gas field was found in 1989. Currently three metal mines, seventeen non-metal mines, eight oil/gas fields and eleven coal mines are working in Hokkaido. Zinc and limestone mines have large shares of production in Japan. Yufutsu gas field started production from 1996 for town gas used in Sapporo. Finally this lecture introduces new surveys for mineral resources in Hokkaido, because its potential is still high. And oil and gas development in Sakhalin is expected to give a great influence on Hokkaido.
An integrated micropaleontological survey (foraminifera, calcareous nannofossil and diatom) of the Kitakanbara area was carried out to reconstruct the geomorphology of the unconformity widely traced at the base of the Kuwae Formation correlated to the Nishiyama Formation. The lower part of the formation which is composed of coarser sediments forms reservoir rock, and therefore a recognition of the paleogeography at the early Nishiyama Age is very important for petroleum exploration in the area. In the north of the Tainai river, the Kuwae Formation unconformably covers the older formations with large amount of basal conglomerate. However, although the formation has an unconformable relationship with the underlaying formations in the main part of the studied area between the Tainai and the Kaji rivers, the basal congromerate is not developed, which makes it difficult to recognize the unconformity accurately during the field observation. Based on the diatom stratigraphy, it is found that a part of the uppermost Miocene which is correlated to the Rouxia californica Zone and lower part of the Neodenticula kamtschatica Zone, is completely missing in the area. The Kuwae Formation which started to deposit at the late stage of the N. kamtschatica Zone, further eroded the underlaying formations in the northern area which is closer to the channel deposits. Moreover, in the Sasakami Hills located in the most southern part of the investigated area, the Annogawa Formation also correlated to the Nishiyama Formation, unconformably overlies the older formations with pebble to boulder breccias derived from the Thalassionema schraderi Zone and the Sakanaiwa Formation. Foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphies are useful for the identification of biozones of the Kuwae (Annogawa) and Shimoseki (Sakanaiwa) Formations. By further integrating biostratigraphic analysis, geological and sedimentological interpretation, the predictive distribution of the reservoir rock will be made clear with greater precision.
Biotechnology using microorganisms has been widely applied to the field of environmental protection and pollution control. The first attempt of bioremediation for shoreline cleanup following the Exxon Valdez oil spill revealed its effectiveness. The fundamental concept of bioremediation for marine oil spill is presented in this paper.