Health, safety and environment (HS & E) management is increasingly recognized as an essential element of oil company's capabilities in implementing its oilfield activities. In the oil industry, costs from losses in terms of human life, financial values and harm to the environment are potentially very large. The oil companies are, therefore, aware that enhanced HS & E management is not only desirable, but beneficial to the efficient running of their business. Radical changes in safety legislation of oil-producing countries are also key drivers that make the oil company focus on describing philosophy and practical application of safety for oil exploration and production. Each regulation requires the oil company to submit its HS & E documents ensuring the installation will be operated safely, for acceptance by the regulatory authority. With such documents the company must demonstrate its policies, state and achieve targets in respect of HS & E, and establish procedures for continuous review and periodic audit of its HS & E management system. Without the formally accepted HS & E documents, the company will not be allowed not only to operate in the region, to be insurance covered, but to be granted the license concession by the government. Under the background as above, it is of urgent necessity for oil companies of Japan to establish their own HS & E plan/manual which fully conforms to the global standard of the HS & E.
This paper describes the safety and environmental management system, policies and measures adopted for petroleum oil field development project which the author was involved as Head of Health, Safety and Environment (HS & E). As safety and environmental awareness has been commonly spread in the industry, project owners are requested to execute the project in a safe and environmentally responsible manner, whichever country the project is planned. As a responsible operator of the Rang Dong oil field, Japan Vietnam Petroleum Co., Ltd. implemented a series of safety and environmental measures based on the safety and environmental management system developed for the management of various hazards arising in the course of the project. The adopted safety and environmental management system is an ISO 14001 like modern management system incorporating the PDCA cycle. Hazard management model was used to mitigate and justify the various operating hazards while attempting to minimize the project expenditures. Various. examples are provided to allow the readers to imagine and understand how these hazards have been properly addressed.
Health Safety & Environment activities in Halliburton Overseas Limited Japan is basically same as what has been done throughout the world. Its initiative is strongly driven by the top management team. It seems that the HS & E commitment of Halliburton has been changed from old style into a new style in the last decade. Years of time it was attempted to change our attitude from reactive to proactive in various employees' training programs and through company messages in any communication media. It was thought that having H.S.E. program within a company was a must in order to participate in open tenders because if we didn't have it in place we had no chance to win the tenders in the international market. However, not only for making business but also it is understood that there is a tremendous potential to improve company performance as an added value if we implement HS & E properly. The toughest part of this practice may be changing our mindsets. Even though everybody says it is important but safety tends to become a secondary priority when its cost is considered. This attitude seems quite common in many people for a long time in spite of the importance. Such a culture change cannot be achieved overnight. Why do we do this? Because it eventually enhances performance of our services we offer to our customers, externally and internally in various respects. To do so, Company must provide a vehicle for everyone to drive and that vehicle must be a place where any level of employees to obtain necessary information and material in timely manner. The most important thing is nothing but the hands-on commitment of the top management people otherwise we would simply repeat the same old culture over and over again.
The long-term business success of Schlumberger depends on our ability to continuously improve our products and services while protecting our people and the environment in which they work and live. It is a commitment which is in the best interests of our customers, our employees and our stockholders. In the good management system, Quality, Health, Safety and Environment are not managed individually but are closely linked together. The system works to predict problems, proactively prevent it happens and after all it will minimize the loss. After all QHSE is the responsibility of line management, with the active commitment and support of all employee.
N2/Ar and He/Ar ratios and their isotopic ratios of gas samples from exploration and production wells of oils and natural gases in the Tohoku district, Japan, were measured for discussing the origins of natural gases. Their plots of N2/Ar and He/Ar ratios from the Green Tuff region and non-volcanic area show the common distribution with positive correlation, being lower than those of geothermal and volcanic gases which contain the magmatic gas with higher N2/Ar and He/Ar ratios in the Northeast Japan. In their distribution zone, the gases collected from formations with high maturity level of organic matter show high N2/Ar and He/Ar ratios, while the gases from the formations with its low maturity level give their low ratios. The natural gases of their high ratios contain thermogenic CH4 and N2 accompanied by Ar having high 40Ar/36Ar ratios deep-seated in the crust. On the other hand, the gases with low N2/Ar and He/Ar ratios are characterized mainly by biogenic CH4 and atmospheric N2 and Ar with low 40Ar/36Ar ratios. These results indicate that natural gases from the Green Tuff formations rarely contain magmatic N2 and CH4. Furthermore, the correlation between N2/Ar and He/Ar ratios of natural gases seems to be useful in estimating their origins and the environment of their generations.
Corrosion and inhibition tests were conducted on Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTGs) in HCl and HCl/HF stimulation acid solutions at 65°C. Commercial inhibitors effectively inhibited L-80 and 13Cr steels. 22Cr duplex steel, however, was not inhibited satisfactorily, especially at low HCl/HF concentrations. The form of corrosion of 22Cr was selective attack. At low HCl/HF concentrations, corrosion product was formed on 22Cr surfaces and inhibitors were considered to be interfered by this corrosion product. To inhibit 22Cr, and to mitigate selective attack, high dosage of inhibitor was required. Another way of corrosion control was attained by the increase in HCl concentration. The increase in HCl concentration made the corrosion reaction more active and reduced the tendency to form the corrosion product, and resulted in the activation of inhibitors for 22Cr in stimulation acid solutions.