In 1992, Venezuela started a campaign to introduce foreign-capital into the oil and natural gas sectors, as one of the middle-term plans to increase oil production from 2.5 MMBPD at that time up to 6.2 MMBPD in 2006. There was a minor modification of the middle-term plan due to the presidential election in February 1999, but the original basic strategy has been maintained. It is considered that the foreign investment on the oil and gas sectors is not only intended for the production enhancement, but for the stimulation on the characteristics of PDVSA (Petroleos de Venezuela. S.A.). which has been a monopolistic state oil company since the nationalization on January 1, 1976. Teikoku Oil Co., Ltd., which has had a large interest in oil business in Venezuela, launched into Venezuela projects in 1992 for East Guarico project and later for Sanvi Guere project in 1993. These are the re-activation projects of the existing oil and gas fields by a service contract. This article introduces key points to be concerned and the measures taken of the rehabilitation business through the experiences in those projects.
Since early in the 1990s, international oil and gas majors have made various efforts to reduce cost and risk in response to the dramatic change of business conditions such as continued low oil prices, deregulation, liberalization, and diversification of energy trade worldwide.For instance, they have introduced drastic budgetary cutbacks, sharp reduction of the work force and simplification of the process of decision-making through restructuring and reengineering activities. Regarding exploration and development activities, some incentive contracts such as Turn-key contract and Lumpsum contract have been applied. Additionally, we can find some successful projects to effectively reduce cost and risk in such places as the North Sea, the Gulf of Mexico. In point of the alliance contract, one operating oil company will organize an alliance team with selected contractors and service companies. This team has been considering how to eliminate overlapping posts and simplify the decision-making process. Furthermore, they are trying to produce new profits by avoiding unnecessary procedures and obstacles. And these new profits will be shared by members of the team. Such a new movement has begun to spread to Southeast Asia and the Oceanian region. Its pace is not so smooth and quick compared with the vanguards because of some geopolitical and domestic conditions such as local content and preferential policy toward domestic enterprises. However, people in related businesses are still concerned with introducing these cost-reduction measures. So, they're expected to be introduced in the near future. This report briefly describes the applicability of these new contracting strategies and their effectiveness in reducing cost and risk.
Japan Oil Development Company (JODCO) has been operating several oil fields jointly with Abu Dhabi National Oil Corporation (ADNOC) in the U.A.E. since the 1970's. The first application of horizontal well technology in the U.A.E. was in 1989. Since then the types and use of horizontal wells have changed very much owing to drastic improvements in horizontal drilling methodology. The reservoir application of horizontal wells is categorized into three types: peripheral locations, crestal locations and in low permeability areas. The objectives of horizontal wells may vary from one to the other. This paper describes the types and the use of horizontal wells during the process of optimization of a full field development plan.
This paper briefly explains how engineering companies perform project management in order to support oil and gas development companies for the reduction of total investment cost of the plant, with the example of West Siberia Project by Toyo Enginnering Corp.
FPSO (floating production, storage and offloading system) plays important role for recent marginal offshore oil fields development. There are several reasons why FPSO is widely used for such field development Major technical advantages are adaptability to wide range of water depth and standalone package. Commercial advantages of FPSO are minimum CAPEX and shorter time for facility construction. To enhance the commercial advantages, lease contract of FPSO is widely adopted. Lease contract can minimize operator's CAPEX and is suitable for early production. Lease contract also benefits contractors by depreciating the facility cost for longer life period as to be used for multiple field development. Very recent charter contract of FPSO often includes the operation and maintenance (O&M) of FPSO. In this case, O&M contractor will supply competent operation and maintenance staff with minimum overhead. The competitiveness of O&M contractor will be enhanced by undertaking several field operation. The author's recent experience in FPSO time charter contract is presented as an example.
The SUS304 stainless steel has experienced severe general corrosion in the CO2 removal units using diglycolamine (DGA), which were located in Niigata prefecture in Japan. For the purpose of selecting suitable corrosion-resistant materials, sample specimens of 15 Fe/Ni-base alloys were installed in the units for about three months. The crrosion behavior of Carpenter, SUS 304, 13Cr alloys and Cr, Cu, Ni was investigated in a 5.0M DGA solution in the laboratory using potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements under 4.5MPa CO2 at 100°C. The results of the electrochemical measurements in the laboratory agreed with the test results obtained in the actual units in tendency. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of Fe/Ni-base alloys in the CO2-loaded highly concentrated DGA solution mainly depended on the Cr content of the alloys, because the DGA-carbamate seemed to form soluble chelate compounds with Cu2+, Ni2+ and Fe2+, but not with Cr3+. In the CO2 removal units, a Ni-Cu alloy corroded severely, but the Fe/Ni-base alloys, of which Cr content was higher than 21% or 22%, showed excellent resistance.
Carbon isotoptic compositions of individual n-C15-C30 alkanes of 20 crude oils from Northeast Japan were determined and their variations were discussed in terms of oil maturity with the following results. (1) The characteristics of carbon isotopic compositions of n-C15-C30 alkanes can be expressed by two parameters: an average δ13C value of the n-alkanes (ADC-value) and an increment of δ13C values with decreasing carbon chain length of the n-alkane (I-value). (2) ADC-value shows a general trend of increase with increasing oil maturity. I-value is low at the stage of low maturity and increases with maturity and then decreases at the stage of high maturity. (3) The variations in carbon isotopic compositions of n-C15-C30 alkanes in crude oils are probably caused by the cleavage of weak C-C bonds in higher molecular weight components of crude oil and the subsequent cracking of the n-alkanes with increasing oil maturity. (4) The ADC-I diagram is proposed to be useful for determining the level of maturity in oils in Northeast Japan.