Sakhalin Energy lnvestment Company Ltd, was formed in April 1994 to operate the Sakhalin-2 project based on the Production Sharing Agreement with the Russian Federation in June, 1994. Shell has a 55% interest in Sakhalin Energy and the other shareholders are Mitsui (25%) and Mitsubishi (20%). Sakhalin Energy started oil production in July, 1999 during the summer season. The project is planned to move to the phase II which is an integrated oil and natural gas development, involving construction of platforms for the Piltun-Astokhskoye and Lunskoye fields offshore Sakhalin lsland, onshore production handling facilities, oil and gas export pipelines to the south of the island and two liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant trains with combined annual capacity of 9.6 million tonnes. It is scheduled to start through the year operation of oil at the end of 2005 with its peak production of 170, 000 barrel per day and to start LNG export at the end of 2006.
Scientific Ocean Drilling was started as part of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) in 1968, and has been continued by Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). From 2003, it will move to the new stage as Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) that will use at least two drilling vessels. One is the deep-sea drilling vessel equipped with a riser system built and operated by JAMSTEC, and the other is a non-riser drilling vessel that will be operated by the United States. In the ocean drilling programs conducted up to now, plate tectonics was demonstrated, historical changes of the global environment were identified, and the significance of the sub-sea biosphere was recognized. IODP is expected to extend these achievements, identify the characteristics of changes in the overall global systems, clarify the interactions between subsystems, and investigate the fundamental cause of these changes. IODP will mark a revolutionary development since plate tectonics in earth science, and will create a new concept of the earth.
The lower oil price during 1990's, with the sudden collapse of price from 1997 through 1999, had forced international E&P industry to accelerate the process of consolidation and rationalization, and hence to restructure and reform itself. At the same time, this environment gave a strong pressure to many IOC's to change their technology strategy. Technical competence of E&P company is most crucial for being competitive in the international market and for surviving in the future. However, the major role of technical research group in the IOC has shifted during the last decade from pure innovative R&D to technical service to the business activities. Further more, many national oil companies are in a process of privatization and will soon become competitive players in the international market. The international E&P market is becoming further competitive for the smaller IOC's. Japanese companies must be competent in this harsh global market, where they must provide highly competitive operating performances at the fields and technical proposals with the best practices and economics to its business partners of NOC's and IOC's. As E&P technology has continuously been advanced during 1990's, to maximize oil and gas recovery with the best economics under lower oil price environment, the following 4 areas of technologies are considered to be most advanced in 90's. These are seismic technology, advanced-innovative drilling technology, reservoir characterization through multi-disciplinary team approach, and deep water technology. Author believes that the mission of TRC in such environment is to provide efficient technical support to Japanese E&P industry by conducting business oriented R&D mainly by multi-disciplinary project teams. As a government agency, TRC should also contribute to the promotion of natural gas utilization in Japan by conducting R&D on new technology to enhance its utilization and promoting further collaborative activities with NOC's to strengthen relationships.kn-abstract=
The renewable energies such as solar power, wind force have only 1/500 density ofenergy compared with thermal power station and nuclear power station, and therefore are not nowfeasible. Nuclear power has the share of more than 35% of total power generation in Japan. On the contrary, in the United States of America, most new capacity of power generation comes from combined cycle natural gas power plant along with the natural gas trunk line. On the other hand, there is no trunk line in Japan. Natural gas is the cleanest energy among the fossil energies because of small emission of CO2, NOx, and SOx. Compared with the coal power generation, combined cycle natural gas power generation emits the only 35% of CO2 which is emitted by coal power. The nuclear power is the base load power generation and cannot establish the whole electricity system as a single nuclear power system, which needs the package of thermal power system. In the view of the amount of CO2 emission, the dispersed natural gas power system is almost the same as the packaged nuclear system. Therefore, about 20 million tons of CO2 will be reduced if the dispersed natural gas powersystem replaces the half of thermal power generation in Japan, which means the achievement of the criteria of the Global Warming Prevention Act.
A comparative corrosion experiment was carried out to correlate the molecular structure and corrosivity relationships of alkanolamines when they were loaded with carbon dioxide (CO2). Primary amines are more corrosive than triethanolamine, a representative of tertiary amine, suggesting the effect of the formation of carbamates upon the absorption of CO2. In addition to the carbamate formation, the carbon chain length of two between the N and O atoms in addition to COO- bonding to N is vital for the alkanolamines to emerge high corrosivity. One possible role of COO- in the increased corrosivity is its high electron-releasing ability and as a result, electron density of N is significantly increased. In the present work, the primary amine, which showed the lowest corrosivity when loaded with CO2, was n-propanolamine, whose carbon chain length between the N and O atoms was three. A systematic molecular structure-corrosivity relationship study is necessary for the development of a new primary amine which favorably absorbs CO2 and has low corrosivity.
Apache Energy Ltd. (Apache) is a subsidiary of Apache Corporation that is an independent oil and gas exploration and production company based in the United States. Apache first began to explore for oil and gas in the Carnarvon Basin in Australia in 1991. At this time, Apache had only few permits and minor equity in these permits. Today it holds interests in over fifty permits in this basin, many of which are operated interests with high equity levels including a number of production and development. Apache's increased activity started with the acquisition of Hadson Energy's NWS portfolio in 1993 which included interests in key production and exploration permits and infrastructure facilities. These facilities have been used as a production hub with further assets being acquired by Apache over time around the facilities in conjunction with an aggressive exploration program (including farm-ins) undertaken in these and other nearby permits. Apache's permit acquisition method can be divided to four phases over the period 1993 to 2000. Each acquisition phase has targeted particular exploration play types and these play types have been changing phase by phase as more information about the region is acquired and as exploration in the Basin matures. These changing play type targets are also reflected in the pattern of Apache's permit acquisitions, which is based on an exploration strategy following of the geoscientists Hadson Energy models created prior to 1993. This report summarizes the strategic development of Apache operations in the Carnarvon Basin, through matching the strategy for permit acquisition and exploration activity to exploration play type models.