To reduce damage to the environment, both locally and globally, while meeting the rising demand for oil is a big challenge for oil companies. This presentation explores what has been done to protect the environment in Sakhalin II and Canadian oil sands projects, touching on the complexity of environmental issues and important roles which oil companies should play. Of the many environmental issues faced today, the risk of global climate change is now growing and generates enormous public interest. In the meantime, oil is projected to maintain a major position in supplying primary energy for a long time to come. To tackle this problem, increases in energy efficiency and a shift to non-fossil fuels are of utmost importance. Along with these measures, gas flaring reduction and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are also very effective ways to reduce global warming gas emissions. In spite of the efforts taken by individual oil companies, the amount of global gas flaring still remains at a high level because of several constraints encountered in flaring countries. While CCS is a very promising option for drastically reducing emissions if applied at large power plants which burn fossil fuels, there is still a long way to go for this option to be accepted as a reliable and affordable means. This presentation reviews international efforts to promote these two measures and provides information on how they are progressing in Russia, Nigeria, Canada and the EU. Lastly, the presentation highlights some specific topics in related international carbon reduction efforts including CDM, CCS EOR, emissions trading and increasing public awareness in environmental issues. The concluding message is that the challenge for sustainable energy development in the new century has already started, and the roles of oil companies are essential as a main player in the high energy society.
Caspian Sea is the largest inland body of water on earth which surrounded by Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Some 130 large and small rivers flow into the Caspian Sea and there is no natural outflow. The coastal wetlands of the Caspian include many shallow, saline pools, which attract a variety of bird life and biodiversity. In addition, the sea's native sturgeon is famous the world around for the roe it produces. INPEX is participating North Caspian Sea Project in Kazakhstan, ACG Project in Azerbaijan and BTC Pipeline Project which starting from Baku, Azerbaijan, via Tbilisi, Georgia, to Ceyhan, Turkey. This presentation shows some examples of practical environmental management in these projects.
Abu Dhabi Oil Co., Ltd. (ADOC) is currently operating three oil fields ; Mubarraz (MUB), Umm Al-Anbar (AR) and Neewat Al-Ghalan (GA) Fields. All produced oil from the fields is gathered to Mubarraz Island for final treatment and shipment. The completion of the Sour Gas Injection Project minimized the amount of flared gas by injecting the sour gas into reservoirs, which used to be flared at AR Site Terminal. The completion of the Zero Flaring Project achieved a complete zero flaring in MUB Field offshore area and minimized the amount of flared gas at Mubarraz Island. The completion of the Waste Water Disposal Project, and Water Separation and Disposal Project eliminated effluents of produced water and process waste water by injecting them into the disposal wells. In addition to minimization of emissions and effluents, ADOC has been actively working on environment protection through osprey monitoring and related protection activities, and also mangrove campaign etc..
Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in December 1997, ratified by Russia in November 2004, has been effective since February 2005. In Kyoto Protocol, the epoch-making Mechanism called Kyoto Mechanism to control six types of greenhouse gases has been incorporated in order to prevent global warming. Up to now, many types of emission reduction projects to create carbon credits have been considered and developed in the world, among those projects, the most typical projects called CDM projects are forecasted and general framework of the CDM such as rules, procedures, type of projects etc. are explained in this presentation. In addition to the abovementioned topics, activities of Mitsui & Co., Ltd. regarding carbon credit business are also explained. Some of ongoing CDM projects developed by Mitsui & Co., Ltd are introduced in the presentation.
JAPEX (Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd.), as one of the fossil fuel producers, is trying to make consideration for the environment surrounding us such as to reduce BTX (Benzene, Toluene and Xylene) discharging, efficient use of low pressure gases in the oil and gas fields, and so on because fossil fuel is considered as one of the cause of increasing GHG (Green House Gas). CO2 geo-sequestration is one of the methods of settling down the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Many core technologies utilized for it are basically used in oil and gas exploration/development technologies. JAPEX made the Environment Geoengineering Technology Department in 2002 and set it for one of its main business. After taking effect of the Kyoto Protocol in February 2005, many meetings and discussions of CO2 geosequestration especially as the project of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) were energetically made. The author reviews about those epoch-making situations briefly, introduces JAPEX's participation in the demonstrative examination in Iwanohara area, Niigata Pref. conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) /Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA), and also introduces injected CO2 flow simulation taking account of residual gas trapping mechanism and future plan.
A pilot-scale CO2 sequestration test into an onshore saline aquifer has been conducted in Nagaoka-City, 200km north of Tokyo under cooperation of Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) and Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA). The aquifer, 1,100 meters in depth and 12 meters in thickness, is in shallower zone of Minami-Nagaoka gas field which is being operated by Teikoku Oil Co., Ltd. (TOC). An injection well and three observation ones were drilled in the site. CO2 of supercritical phase had been injected into a permeable zone in the aquifer with the rate of 20 to 40 tonnes per day. The injection started on July 7, 2003 and ended on January 11, 2005 with total amount of 10,405 tonnes. A series of monitoring method including time-lapse well logging, time-lapse cross-well seismic tomography, bottom-hole pressure/temperature measurement, fluid sampling and microseismicity monitoring have been successfully carried out to grasp the movement of injected CO2 during and after the injection. History-matching simulation had been performed to interpret the monitoring results. Long-term CO2 movement was predicted using the last model of history matching, implying the location and size of the CO2 to remain almost unchanged from those at the end of injection in the test area over a period as long as 1,000 years. The monitoring at the test site will be continued until 2007.
Palynostratigraphic investigation and age determination based on terrestrial palynomorphs are conducted on the nonmarine to shallow marine deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Kuji Group, Northeast Japan. Four palynostratigraphic assemblages are recognized in the group (assemblages A, B, C, and D, in ascending order). The variation of the assemblages are considered to depend on changes of paleovegetation and depositional environment of host sediments. Especially, the variation of assemblages A to C from marine-influenced deposits suggests a regional paleovegetational change represented by the increase of bisaccate pollen-producing conifers during the deposition of the Tamagawa Formation. The occurrence of angiosperm triprojectate pollen in the Kuji Group shows that the interval from the upper part of the Tamagawa Formation to the Sawayama Formation is confined to Santonian to lower Campanian. This contributes to dating of the potential source rock/reservoir packages within Cretaceous sediments in the Yezo forearc basin.
In the South Kanto natural gas fields, Japan, a technique for perforating steel casing has been required to improve poorly performing wells and also to cement an annulus between casing and formation. Nowadays, perforations are widely performed by gun perforators with shaped-charge explosives. However, they must be conformed to tough regulations concerning explosives and furthermore they may cause casing splitting when perforating heavily corroded casing of small diameter. Therefore, a perforating system without using shaped-charge explosives has been required. In this study, we developed an abrasive waterjets system with four nozzles to perforate four holes in a steel casing at once. To clarify the effect of ambient and driving pressures and impinging time after perforation on perforated hole area, laboratory perforation tests were conducted under ambient pressure of up to 3 MPa. Main results obtained in this study are summarized as follows : (1) The developed system can perforate four holes at once for a steel casing with a thickness of 6.35 mm under ambient pressure of up to 3 MPa. (2) The perforation performance of each nozzle in the nozzle system was similar to that of a single nozzle system. Accordingly, a nozzle system with four nozzles can be designed based on a methodology for designing a single nozzle system. (3) For repeated perforation, the optimum impinging time for each perforation is determined so that average increase rate of hole area may be maximum.
It is important to reduce discharge of volatile organic compounds outside, so as to prevent air pollution that related to photochemical smog or suspended particulate matters. In consideration of recent regulation against air pollution, we have independently reduced VOC greatly that has been exhausted outside. In order to evaluate the VOC reduction appropriately, we studied rapid measuring method of VOC in atmospheric air. As a rapid measuring method of VOC, we selected passive sampler. It has several attractive features relative to the public conventional active sampling method. It is easy to operate without an air pump and a power supply. The each concentration of VOC element in atmospheric air, for example benzene, was very low. So, good correlation with the conventional public method and high sensitivity were required. Consequently, we confirmed good correlation with them and its sensitivity was sufficient to analyze the low concentration of VOC element. We found that the passive sampler was applicable to the measurement of VOC in atmospheric air.