One determination of Sr and Nd isotopic ratios of Early to Middle Miocene volcanic rocks recovered by deep drilling at twenty-six wells in the Niigata oil and gas regions demonstrates that the NdI (initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios) of basaltic rocks collected from each drilling well vary only slightly, whereas the SrI (initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios) of these rocks range widely and deviate systematically from the fields of the source mantle in SrI-NdI diagram. In addition, thirty samples (basaltic andesite, andesite and more felsic volcanics) collected from eight drilling wells in the southern part of the regions have nearly constant NdI of around 0.51275, but these rocks have SrI ranging widely from 0.70554 to 0.70851, indicating changes of SrI due to alteration by seawater for these volcanic rocks which were produced from basaltic magma by fractional crystallization. The present results indicate that the alteration of underground oil and gas-bearing volcanic rocks by seawater caused significant increases of 87Sr/86Sr ratios, whereas the 143Nd/144Nd ratios remained virtually unchanged. Rhyolitic rocks from three drilling wells in the northern part of the regions show significantly higher SrI values (0.70727 to 0.70914) and lower NdI values (0.51247 to 0.51265) than the recovered basaltic rocks, indicating a lower crust origin for these rhyolitic rocks.
DME is a kind of ether derived from methanol, and has been utilized as propellant and/or solvent up to now. However, recently, DME has been highlighted as potential clean/eco-friendly energy for power generation as well as substitute for diesel fuel, and further has possibility to be used as intermediates for ethylene, acetic acid and other chemicals. Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC) has been producing DME in Japan based on methanol dehydration process for 25 years. As for methanol production technology, MGC is a world-famous process owner, and MGC technology has been licensed and practiced in AR-RAZI in Saudi Arabia, Metor in Venezuela with total capacity of 4 million metric tons per year. Fuel grade DME in large scale is possible by integrating dehydration process with methanol production at competitive price commercially. Technology of DME is described in this paper.
The firework industry in Niigata Prefecture is famous, and the firework makers in Niigata and a few other prefectures satisfy greater part of the domestic demand in fireworks. Especially, the Japanese largest firework, so called “Yonshaku dama” which is approximately 120 centimeters in diameter, can be produced and launched only by Niigata's firework technology. Gunpowder was historically introduced to Japan with gun technology in 1543. Since gun armament was prohibited by Tokugawa government in the Edo period, gunpowder makers had to resign their posts and some have supposed to become firework artisans. “Kagiya” as the first firework maker in the Edo City, have opened a store in 1659. Skyrocket-type modern fireworks were invented about 100 years after then. The Japanese skyrocket-type fireworks, well known as “Japanese Style Firework” in the world, have spherical outside appearance, and it open spherically once launched to the sky, in contrast to cylindrical shape of European fireworks. Firework technology seemed to have been transmitted from the Kansai district not only to the Edo City, but also to some rice field basins of large rivers flowing into the Sea of Japan in the Northeast Japan, such as Katakai Town, perhaps related to “Kitamae” cargo boat services.
Storage of carbon dioxide in deep geological formations is considered to be an effective measure for mitigation of global warming because it uses many of the same technologies that have been developed in upstream oil and gas industry. However, in the implementation of carbon dioxide geological storage, development of more reliable well plugging method is one of the critical issues for long-term reduction of potential risk of carbon dioxide leakage through the abandoned injection wells. We carried out a preliminary study on prevention of carbon dioxide leakage by use of ethanol-bentonite slurry injected into the near-wellbore formation during well abandonment procedure to reduce its permeability. We conducted a set of horizontal one-dimensional flow experiments using a glass-bead packed bed in a transparent acrylic cylindrical holder for four types of ethanol-bentonite slurry, which respectively had a different kind of bentonite clay suspended. We confirmed by visual observation that ethanol-bentonite slurry might be injected with filtration depending on the type of bentonite clay. A certain degree of pore plugging by hydration swelling of bentonite clay with time elapsed after injection was estimated to occur from the result of pressure drop measurement.
Stable supply of petroleum in coming years using Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques is an issue of prime importance, though most of EOR techniques which can effectively act to recover compulsively the residual crude oil are still in testing stage. Microbial EOR (MEOR) is generally understood to be at the similar stage. Regarding MEOR, there are two points of issue. One is how to transplant target microbe (s) into the formation where needed and the other is how to activate their microbial metabolic function where to execute the role. These are indispensable to establish MEOR technology as a practical technology. Hence, promotion of those techniques based on the scientific approach becomes increasingly important. Through TRC-Jilin Oil Corp. joint-research reviewed in this paper, importance of this concept was confirmed and it was also shown that these two techniques described above are controllable and available at the field level. In particular, the microbial profile modification is not only a direct method to enhance the oil recovery, but also an effective pretreatment technique for transplanting the microbe (s) to a target reservoir region. It is not an exaggeration to say that a new era of MEOR technology has begun with the above-described field research in China. And, it is indicated that strategies of reservoir development based on the overall plan considering a combination of applicable IOR/EOR techniques through the whole production period become more important than ever before.