The Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station has lead to a comprehensive review of Japan's energy policy. In addition, upheaval in the Middle East and North Africa might have serious impacts on petroleum and natural gas policy. This lecture briefly overviews prospects for petroleum and natural gas policy in these circumstances.
Based on recent progress on Cenozoic stratigraphy and molluscan biostratigraphy of the Japanese Islands, the causes and effects of some geological and paleoenvironmental events are discussed in relation to Pacific gateway events. The silica biomarker change that was recognized in Kamchatka at the Eocene/Oligocene transition possibly corresponded to the first cooling event of the Antarctic ice sheet. The drastic change in the same biomarker detected at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary in northern Sakhalin possibly was a response to the upwelling of cold deep water related to the opening of the Drake Passage. It is also considered that the invasion event of the tropical/subtropical bivalve Hataiarca kakehataensis (Hatai and Nisiyama) at 17 Ma in the Japanese Islands might have taken place in response to the closure of the Indonesian seaways. It is important to consider the scenarios of the cause and effect of geological events in response to global events.
This lecture note reviews the author's reservoir engineering work for nineteen years at Waseda University. Education and research were continued being based on a firm perspective on the oil and gas E&D industry. Students required a solid and convincing view grounded on proper analyses and incisive judgments about issues ranging from energy and environment to conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources. Efforts in education were composed of three components as course work, seminars, and extracurricular activities. The curriculum was organized with the requisite and minimum courses. Off-campus activities such as attending technical meetings and visiting oil fields were particularly useful and worthwhile for students to better understand the industry. Research was conducted selecting subjects mainly on reservoir modeling and simulation. Through much effort for developing compositional models and streamline-based models, modeling capabilities were enhanced to sequentially produce various models. Results of a CO2 sequestration model, a waterflood management model, and an upscaling system are briefly presented in this note.
D/V Chikyu is the largest scientific drilling vessel in the world. Her riser drilling capability permits us to drill in water depths of 2,500 m deep, and then down through 7,000 m of crust below the seafloor. The mission for D/V Chikyu is to help achieve the scientific goals of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). One of her key features, therefore, is the onboard coring and laboratory capability ; she can collect continuous core samples as needed, examine the samples aboard as soon as possible, and preserve cores samples as required. D/V Chikyu has an advanced ship engineering capability to install a borehole monitoring equipment as well as for riser operations, even under a strong Kuroshio Current (maximum of 6 knots). Currently being recruited for cutting-edge scientific proposals, D/V Chikyu is looking to be operated in the waters such as Atlantic as well as Mediterranean Sea and also ultra deep drilling to the oceanic mantle, through the Mohorovicic Discontinuity after completing the Nankai Seismogenic Zone drilling project. Of course she has strong interest on basic science in related to gas hydrates, deep-water bio-CCS, and hydrothermal mineralization. Although many technological and engineering challenges are needed to overcome the difficulties involved in these future drilling projects, D/V Chikyu, is ready to sail and lead scientific ocean drilling over the next 10 years with broad collaboration with the industry community.
High equivalent circulating density (ECD) may cause serious drilling problems in extended-reach drilling and management of ECD is one of the key issues in designing and drilling extended-reach wells. In addition, ECD fluctuation followed by repeated formation and erosion of cuttings deposit bed in drilling extended-reach wells also causes serious drilling problem such as borehole instability. In this paper, simulations of ECD and cuttings transport were carried out for two typical extended-reach model wells in which a situation that drilling and mud circulation were alternately repeated was reproduced. Following results were obtained from the simulation study. (1)Under the situation that drilling and mud circulation were repeated, ECD fluctuated so as to be high during drilling and low during circulation. (2)ECD fluctuation could be diminished by lowering the penetration rate and/or reducing the circulation time. (3)Under the situation that drilling and mud circulation were repeated, ECD could be kept lower than that in case of drilling continuously without circulation. (4)Insufficient mud circulation resulted in high ECD, especially in case of high penetration rate, although long circulation time makes ECD fluctuated.
Methane hydrate (MH) is expected as a new energy resource. Meanwhile it is sometimes said in general public that the MH development has an adverse affect on global environment. However, at present, it is speculated that the environmental risks of the MH development are not thought to be any more serious than those posed by the conventional oil and gas production if the MH production will be conducted by the use of the depressurization method for the pore-filling MH deposits in sandy sediments. Phase 2 of the Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program began in JFY2009. From this phase, the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21) began to conduct a comprehensive environmental study along the rules of the environmental risk assessment to establish an environmental management plan for future MH development. It was identified that the environmental risk factors on the MH development are almost same as the ones on the conventional oil and gas production. Meanwhile the MH21 recognized that the following events might be the environmental risk factors for future MH development ; (1) methane leakages from the seafloor, (2) discharge of production water into the ocean, (3) seafloor subsidence, and (4) submarine landslides. To predict the severities of these events, the MH21 is currently implementing to conduct the baseline surveys, develop the numerical models, conduct the ecotoxicity tests on marine organisms and construct the environmental monitoring systems for offshore MH production test planned in JFY2012.
China, which has abundant coal resources, has a size comparable of coal bed methane (CBM) resources to conventional natural gas resources in the amount of land. The development of China's CBM, which mining methods was not ever practical and economic viability was ever extremely poor, has been activated by technological advancements of countries including USA in recent years. In this paper argues that the development status and trends for CBM in China. First, we reviewed the resources status and resources distribution of CBM. Next, we explained development status and technology status. Finally, after mentioned above preferential policies and development plans by Chinese government, we examined CBM development trends. The development of China's CBM from cooperation with foreign companies, Chinese enterprises developing its own and backup by Chinese government etc. to be brought major changes for China's energy industry is considered.