Iwaki-Oki Gas field which operated by OIP (Offshore Iwaki Petroleum Co., Ltd.) located at Pacific Ocean of Naraha-Chou offing. OIP started natural gas production from 1984, and finished operation at end of July 2007. After finishing operation, OIP needed decommissioning work of Iwaki-Oki Platform, and started study for it from 2004. This study consisted with several engineering, several preparation works of Platform decommissioning, procurement of HLV (Heavy Lift Vessel) and discussion with related governments. OIP carried out deconstruction work for Platform decommissioning from December 2009 to July 2010. This deconstruction work included topside removal and Jacket toppling. Topside removal is dividing topside on Jacket into 16 blocks, lifting them by HLV respectively, and moving to a working table ship by HLV. And, Jacket was cut in depth-sounding the part of 92.5 meters, and was performing toppling. One of key works of this deconstruction was subsea-cutting, and this key work was Jacket legs and main piles cutting by ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle). In Japan, it was first case to use ROV for subsea-cutting. Another one was unique work, and it was made use of Jacket leg buoyancy for Jacket toppling. This Platform decommissioning was completed by the time necessary for completion about 10 working days shorter than a plan. This work was also no-disaster.
Idemitsu Petroleum Norge AS acquired a 9.6% interest in Production Licenses 057 and 089 in 1989. These licenses are located in the Northern North Sea, and comprised the Snorre, Tordis and Statfjord East oil fields when acquired. The estimated recoverable reserve in the Snorre area was increased from 900 million boe in 1990 to 2,880 million boe in 2011 as a result of the successful improved recovery technology and discovery of new satellite fields of Vigdis, Borg and Sygna, etc.. In order to fill the decline of production in the Snorre area, the company acquired a 15% interest of Production License 090 in 2002, comprises the Fram West and East fields. The new discoveries were also made in the Fram area and development plans are being considered. Since 2004 Idemitsu has actively participated in the annual licensing round and a number of licenses were awarded in the Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea as well as in the North Sea. In the new licenses, the Knarr, Peon and Titan, etc. were discovered, and a Plan for Development and Operation of the Knarr field was approved by the gorverment. There are a number of promising discoveries in Idemitsu's portfolio and the company is constructively working with the operators to find optimal development solutions. The net oil production reached the peak of 40,000 b/d in 2004 and declined to 25,000 b/d by the year 2011 but will be back to 35,000 b/d in 2014 when the Knarr field starts production.
JAPEX was awarded to develop Garraf Oil Field in Iraq's second bidding round in 2009. The project is leaded by one of international oil companies (IOCs), with JAPEX as a non-operational partner. However, Japex has sent more than 10 employees to be seconded to this project. The writer has been sent to the project team to work with them for one and half years where he could have experience how project management should go on in order to maximize the value of the project which includes a mindset for the common target to play a very important role. Since the project management is a very important key for international success, the writer presents here 10 scenes from his everyday working situations that are different from JAPEX's attitude. Summarizing such scenes, three disciplines are extracted which a Japanese company should learn to catch up to be an international; they are ‘Empowerment’, ‘Economy sensitive’, and ‘Education (including to make a mindset)’. He believes these three disciplines could improve the Japanese way of project management, and also they would become more important for the future development of all the Japanese company system.
Due to the remoteness and broadness of underground reservoirs, direct and accurate reservoir characterization is difficult, if not impossible, and evaluation outcomes usually suffer from some degree of uncertainty. For proper management of resource development, rational decisions need to be made under uncertainties, which require adequate information-gathering activities. To judge whether the expected improvement in management is worth the cost of information gathering, the concept of value of information (VOI) is of use. The present paper introduces and discusses the methodology of VOI analyses in the context of resource development. A motivating problem with discrete probabilities is used to illustrate the concept of VOI. It is demonstrated that information is not always of value. This concept is then extended to continuous distributions in terms of random variables and probabilities. The effects of prior uncertainty, information reliability and net present values on the VOI are examined. VOI analyses provide quantitative insights into the value of information-gathering activities and therefore can be an objective means to impartially justify decision making under uncertainties.
There was a major turning point for US natural gas industry due to the price hike since 2000. While most players, including the government, headed toward LNG import, limited others chose to stay in domestic unconventional gas development in Texas, so called Shale Gas. The Shale Gas revolution is not something that just happened recently and the early sign could be seen since 70's. North American natural gas market has been controlled by the government in 80's and 90's, keeping lower price, but such special technologies like horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing and microseismic, were progressed steadily by ambitious challengers even under low price environment. There were certain grounds behind the sudden rise of “Shale Revolution” in North America, except the price factor. 1. High quality and huge resource potential Abundant high quality shale formations are extended virtually from coast to coast, which has been flourished through the application of proper usage of the advanced technologies and lessons learned from their “trials and errors” 2. Infrastructure Most shale opportunities are residing where conventional oil & gas fields are located as a source to enable hydrocarbon charges to the fields, hence easy to be monetized using the advantages of existing infrastructures. 3. Water In general, there are easy accesses the water sources to enable sizeable fracking operations At Mitsubishi, we initiated our study to consider the possible export of natural gas into Japan, to take the full advantage of the Shale revolution in the North America. Through the extensive study, we concluded to focus on the Canadian shale gas potential as Mitsubishi's priority as LNG feed, because of; their favorable location being approximate to Japan, its geopolitical stability which best fit as our favored supplier, and the low natural gas market being the lowest in the North America. Furthermore, the mammoth resources potential of Canadian Shale Gas enables us to envision long and stable supply possibilities in comparison with any other existing LNG projects. There still remains challenging milestones to realize this concept, but such can be overcome through each step by step. We believe we can bring “Japan-flagged” Canadian gas into Asian region in the near future.
In 1998, INPEX acquired the petroleum exploration permit WA-285-P, located in the Browse Basin, approximately 820 kilometres south-west of Darwin. During 2000 to 2001, three exploratory wells resulted in the discovery of gas and condensate field now known as the Ichthys Field. Field reserves are estimated to be producible for 40 years of gas and condensate. In 2006, INPEX transferred a 24% participating interest in the Ichthys Project to TOTAL. INPEX is the Operator of the Project. Gas from the Ichthys Field will undergo preliminary processing at the offshore central processing facility (CPF) to remove water and raw liquids, including a large proportion of the condensate. This condensate will be pumped to a floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) facility anchored nearby, from which it will be transferred to tankers for delivery to markets. The gas will be transported from the CPF through a subsea pipeline more than 885 kilometres to the onshore LNG processing plant proposed for Blaydin Point at Darwin, Northern Territory. After Final Investment Decision (FID) based on FID conditions such as major governmental approvals, securing marketing for the entire LNG production and sufficient confirmation of lender's intension, construction phase will commence to target on 1st production end of 2016. The Ichthys Project will have an initial capacity to produce 8.4 million tonnes of LNG per annum and 1.6 million tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) per annum, as well as approximately 100,000 barrels of condensate per day at peak. In proceeding with the Ichthys Project, INPEX have built a relationship of mutual understanding with governments, local communities and other stakeholders. Execution and operation of the Ichthys project will achieve the establishment of gas supply chain in Japan and contribute to achieving a stable and efficient energy supply.
With recent years, the development of shale gas, which mining methods was not ever practical and economic viability was ever extremely poor, has been activated by technological advancements of countries including USA in recent years. China has more shale gas reserves than any other countries in the world. Expectation of shale gas development of China is growing. In this paper discuss the development status and trends for shale gas in China. First, we reviewed the resources status and resources distribution of shale gas. Next, we explained development status and technology status. Finally, after mentioned above preferential policies and development plans by Chinese government, we examined shale gas development trends. China's shale gas development, promote the commercialization and backup by Chinese government etc., will be considered further.