The Overseas Training Program conducted by Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) has a quarter century of history since 1989 including the times of JNOC, the former organization of JOGMEC. The program comprises a variety of courses regarding oil/gas upstream technologies and more than 3,000 engineers from 47 countries participated in the program. The 25 years' “steady effort” has been for providing the participants with not only the up-to-date technologies but variety of opportunities to know more about Japan. JOGMEC staff in charge of the training program always direct special consideration to their comfortable stay in Japan, however, sometimes attended by various difficulties coming from cultural differences.
JAPEX was awarded to develop Garraf Oil Field (located in the southern part of Iraq) in the Iraq second bidding round in December, 2009. This is the first oil development project as a Japanese oil company that was entered into Iraq after the war. It seemed to have many obstacles when the project was started, which were including but not limited to local contractors with low technical level workers and the Iraq's inefficient governmental processes because of the early stage in its developmental stage after the war. However, we have achieved first oil production with completing the early production facilities of 100 Kbbl in August 2013. Since then, the production continues constantly in this southern area through 2014 without any interruptions by a political crisis of national election in April and by an invasion by Islamic State (IS) in the northern territory in June. This article reports the front line of oil resource development under the unstable and risky global situations.
Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd. (Idemitsu) has been operating the explorations and productions of geothermal resources since establishing a new department and beginning coal, uranium, and geothermal businesses in 1977. The aim of this action was to develop alternative energy resources to oil and gas and alleviate the shortage of energy resources since the first oil shock in 1973.
Idemitsu picked out a promising prospect in Takigami area, Oita prefecture as a result of its nationwide explorations. After the additional explorations and production tests in the advanced stages, Idemitsu began to produce geothermal steam that was equivalent to 25,000 kW and supply it to Takigami Power Station operated by Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. in Nov. 1996. Since Jun. 2010, the output has been increased to 27,500 kW by utilizing surplus steam production.
In recent years, geothermal resources have been re-recognized as clean, renewable, and domestic energy resources in Japan and expected to alleviate the environmental and energy issues. Idemitsu launched on the post-Takigami projects for further development of geothermal resources based on its experience in Takigami. The prospects in Amemasu-dake area, Hokkaido prefecture and Oyasu area, Akita prefecture have been explored by Idemitsu in cooperation with the joint venture partners, INPEX CORPORATION and Mitsui Oil Exploration Co., Ltd. since 2011.
We have tried to develop crosshole electromagnetics for oil fields utilizing a high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID). Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology utilizing CO2 is an epoch-making technique for efficient production of oil. Recently, a new technique of changing CO2 to CH4 based on biotechnology has also attracted attention. CO2 - EOR is important not only for oil producing countries but also for the earth from the aspect of environmental conservation. To control the EOR, it is important to improve accuracy of monitoring technique of EOR. Though monitoring techniques utilizing seismography and gravity are useful for this objective, combination with an electromagnetic method using a highly sensitive magnetometer is expected to provide promising improvement of EOR monitoring technology. The HTS-SQUID has potential to monitor CO2 movement in oil reservoir because of its high sensitivity in a wide frequency range from DC to over 1 MHz. As the first step of the developments, a vessel for a SQUID system was prepared by using carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) with pressure tightness of 28 MPa and heat-resistance of 200 °C. By using the SQUID system placed at a depth of 50 m in a steel-cased borehole filled with water, magnetic signals from a transmitter coil in another borehole were successfully measured. We will improve the pressure- and heat-resistant performance, safety, and reliability of the technique to satisfy the requirements for application to oil fields.
Recently, cellulose nanofiber (The width is 4-200 nm) that fined from wood pulp is in the spot light in various industries. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) has a feature of high strength, high modulus, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and high transparency. Dai-ichi Kogyo Seiyaku Co., Ltd. is developing CNF as a new thickener, and we have already found the function such as the highly thixotropy, the emulsifying and suspending ability. In this study, we aimed at developing cellulose nanofiber as biodegradable and eco-friendly chemicals in oil and gas E&P industry.
The basic properties of CNF and other thickeners, such as guar gum, CMC, Xanthan gum, polyacrylamide were compared. And then, we found that CNF has highly thickening effect and yield value, and the degree of temperature dependence of the viscosity was found quite low. Also, we confirmed the ability of CNF to form a stable gel by being mixed with aluminium acetate basic as cross-linker and left standing for about 7hr.
The cross-linked gel did not collapse, and the weight loss was found very small when immersing in brine (8% NaCl & 2% CaCl2) solution. It is suggested that the gel works well as agent of water shut-off for oil/gas reservoirs. Apparent viscosity in case CNF flow the inside of porous media was measured by using visualized porous media model. As a result, CNF is thixotropic (the viscosity decrease with an increasing shear rate). Water flooding was carried out to high permeability model and low permeability model (connected in parallel) by using 3% NaCl solution as brine, and silicon oil. After that, polymer EOR was carried out by using 0.4% CNF. As a result, oil recovery rate was increase to 49% because of sweeping the low permeability model by CNF (Oil recovery rate of water flooding is 16%).
基盤岩フラクチャー型貯留層では, その内部に発達するフラクチャーが油ガスの流動と貯留を担っている。近年, 基盤岩フラクチャー型貯留層の開発が進み, それに対する多くの知識と技術の蓄積がなされつつあるが, フラクチャーの分布が極めて複雑であるがゆえにその評価は依然困難である。ベトナムでは石油および天然ガスの生産の95%がCuu Long堆積盆からのものであり, その内の85%が基盤岩フラクチャー型貯留層からの生産によるものである。したがって, ベトナムにとって基盤岩フラクチャー型貯留層を適切に記述し, ヒストリーマッチを行うことでより正確な油層シミュレーションモデルを構築して評価を行うことは, まさに重要で挑戦的な課題である。よく知られているように, 基盤岩フラクチャー型貯留層の相対浸透率曲線と浸透率の異方性を決定することは非常に困難である。そこで, 本研究では, 生産データからそれらを決定するための最適化アルゴリズムを開発し, Bach Ho (White Tiger) 油ガス田に対してそのアルゴリズムを導入したコンピュータ支援ヒストリーマッチによる相対浸透率曲線と浸透率の異方性の再評価を試みた。その結果, 従来のコンピュータ支援を利用しない方法に比べて実測データとの差異が小さくなり信頼性の高いシミュレーションモデルを構築することができた。しかし, さらに差異を小さくしてより正確な油層シミュレーションモデルを構築するには, さらなる研究が必要であることも分かった。
In FY2011, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (hereafter referred to as “JOGMEC”) carried out a technical survey of shale gas, however the targets of development had been shifted from shale gas to shale oil and liquid-rich shale gas due to the slump in North American gas prices. To follow up on this trend, JOGMEC carried out a technical survey of shale oil in FY2013.
The objectives of this trend survey were to obtain the latest information on exploration and development technologies for use in JOGMEC's project technical evaluations. This report was disclosed to Japanese oil development companies to help promote oil and natural-gas development projects. Though this survey, JOGMEC has gathered information on exploration and development technologies by investigating documents and interviewing oil development and service companies. In addition, case studies related to searches for shale oil fields were also performed because, in recent years, there was quit little information in relation to shale oil although developments have advanced.
This paper selects drilling and completion technology in shale oil from this survey.