In CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) project, the caprock formations overlying the injection unit play an important role in avoiding CO2 leakage. Measurement of threshold capillary pressure is one of the most effective methods to know the sealing ability of caprocks. We measured threshold capillary pressure with three mudrock core plugs. The purposes of our study are to examine the impact of the injected fluid properties on threshold capillary pressure using N2 and CO2 and to estimate relative permeability and capillary pressure of extreme low permeability rock such as a mud or shale from the results of dynamic approach.
We compared threshold capillary pressures between N2 and CO2 under 10 MPa back pressure and found the threshold capillary pressure for CO2 was smaller than that for N2. This result shows the injected fluid properties affect the measured threshold capillary pressure. And with one sample, we counted the displacement volume of brine swept by injected gases, CO2 and N2. In N2 experiment, the displacement volume was 2.7∼5.3 % of pore volume and in CO2 experiment, it was 6.9∼12.1 % of pore volume, which was much larger than that in N2 experiment. The injected gas properties also affect the displacement volume.
In addition, we successfully estimated relative permeability and capillary pressure curves by simulating gas flooding with dynamic approach.
Approximately 100 years have passed since Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids (NADF) was introduced to the drilling fluid of oil and gas development. Also NADF consumed worldwide and accounted for more than 45% of the total market in recent years.
In Japan, Synthetic Base Mud (SBM) has been successfully applied in a critical operations i.e. multilateral, extended reach drilling and water sensitive clay formation since 2006. However, our company was looking for domestic procurement of Non-Aqueous Base Fluids (NABF) because emergency procurement was difficult for NABF had been imported from abroad.
The authors will discuss the classification and history of the NADF, and describe current trends in the base fluid of NADF. And also, we will introduce our efforts related to domestic procurement of NABF.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has already been in practical use to recover the residual oil from depleted oil reservoirs. In order to improve the efficiency of EOR, fundamental mechanism of recovery process needs to be clarified; however, real time observation of the flow in the porous structure is difficult. In this study, three-phase refractive index matching method was adapted to visualize the two-phase flow of surfactant flooding in a micro-scale porous media. Three-dimensional dynamics of oil recovery process was observed by using adequate test fluids and optical system. As a result, mobilization and coalescence of residual oil droplets were able to be visualized clearly. Time dependent variation of recovery ratio was also analyzed quantitatively. Finally, extensibility of presented technique for three-dimensional visualization was also discussed.
Fission track dating was carried out on a pyroclastic deposit that formed during the opening of the Japan Sea. We found a welded dacitic pyroclastic flow deposit in the lower part of the Miocene Isomatsu Formation on the Tsugaru Peninsula, Aomori Prefecture. Fission track ages determined for the internal and external surfaces of zircon (about 14 and 16 Ma, respectively) are both younger than expected from published radiometric and paleontological data. Track length measurements suggest either that the fission track ages represent the initial cooling (= depositional) age of the pyroclastic rock or that they are a totally reset age at a reheating event that occurred at about 14 Ma. We prefer the latter possibility and infer that the reheating could result from intrusion of andesitic dikes near the sampling site.
The Technical Solutions Project was initiated in 2013 with the aim of strengthening relationships with oil and gas producing countries. Through this scheme, JOGMEC proposes “Technical Solutions” to oil and gas producing countries to solve their technical problems (“needs”) by applying Japanese advanced and cutting-edge technologies (“seeds”).
Analysis of Needs and Seeds
JOGMEC visits national oil companies to gather and understand the technical challenges of these countries and to present advanced technologies developed in this project. In parallel, JOGMEC holds technical meetings with Japanese companies to survey brilliant technical seeds and to exploit the possibility of collaboration with them.
To propose the technical solutions to oil and gas producing countries, innovative technological developments are adopted and promoted jointly with Japanese companies as the first stage “Phase-1.” If the first stage is successful, then, the project will proceed in next technical verification stage “Phase-2.” Finally, technical demonstration stage called “Phase-3” is the last stage for commercial application in oil and gas producing countries.
JOGMEC Techno Forum
To coordinate an opportunity for matching needs of oil and gas producing countries and seeds in Japanese industries, JOGMEC hosts “JOGMEC Techno Forum.” Its program contains key-note sessions by representatives from overseas and domestic oil and gas companies and governments, and a panel discussion is also presented to introduce technical problems which oil and gas producing countries are facing and discuss the possibility of solving the problems with them.
Technical Solutions Training Program
As a part of the Technical Solutions Project, the Technical Solutions Training Program is held for oil and gas producing countries. The purposes of this training program are to share the idea of current technical challenges in oil and gas E&P fields and to learn applicable technical solutions including both international and Japanese best practices to solve the technical challenges.
The author believes there is no other way to solve short and medium term energy problems than to place the fossil fuel energy, which currently accounts for more than 80% of primary energy, at the center of energy. To supply as much oil and gas as possible to Japan, Japanese government and petroleum related companies are trying to obtain concessions/equities for the development of petroleum including unconventional oil and gas all over the world. Recently, unconventional oil and gas attract attention as next generation energy, because of their vast amount of resources. A part of the unconventional oil and gas has been already produced on a commercial scale, while the development of some of them is still in the stage of research. This paper first gives an outline of unconventional oil and gas, followed by the introduction to the development/production methods and problems/challenges.
Two main methods of cold production and thermal method are being applied as an in-situ recovery of heavy-oil/extra-heavy-oil/bitumen. For the thermal methods, advanced production methods including the combination of steam and solvent injection as well as the in-situ upgrading are investigated. In the shale gas/oil exploitation, the area of high productivity, which is called a ‘sweet spot,’ is confined to small parts of a formation. Toward the identification of this sweet spot, there is a variety of research work conducted. The research work for the development of methane hydrate has started recently. In-situ development methods and enhanced gas recovery by nitrogen/CO2 injection are being investigated for the development of oil shale and coalbed methane reservoirs, respectively.
Although there are many problems for the exploitation of unconventional oil and gas, including those of uncertain reserves and development methods, high cost and environmental issues, studies and challenges to overcome these problems are steadily progressing.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) released the ASTROCAM 7000HS, a radioactive substance visualization camera, in March 2013, following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The ASTROCAM 7000HS incorporates the technologies for the gamma-ray detector used for the ASTRO-H satellite, which we have been developing under entrustment from and together with scientists at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and the design was modified for use on land to commercialize the product. We performed on-site tests in June 2013 in the area where living is restricted in Fukushima Prefecture and succeeded in the visualization of hot spots polluted by cesium mainly.
At oil and gas production facilities, there are cases where high concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) appear. These NORMs cause a health risk to workers and environmental affect. MHI started the R&D to apply this camera for NORM visualization with Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC). The outline of the ASTROCAM 7000HS, the measurement principle and the test results are reported below.