The purpose of this study was to examine the postural control involved in standing up with support in the context of an
environmental structure. The occasions on which an infant 8-11 months of age stood with support were observed at
his home. The routes followed by his four limbs were analyzed separately in terms of perceived surface layout and
divided into three phases: the first contact with the vertical layout, the trajectory of standing up, and the subsequent
trajectory. The results showed that the infant detected several kinds of vertically organized surface layouts and
discriminated accordingly for each postural change. The data suggested that detection of vertical surface layouts and
their related edges contributed both mechanically and visually to the emergence of standing up with support.
We conducted a longitudinal study of the meal-time behaviors of an infant to examine the development of object
manipulation. At the age of 8 months, 27 days, this infant began to touch containers. Analysis 1 revealed different
types of manipulation. Analysis 2 examined the manipulations involved in placing food or cutlery in containers and
investigated the process of using manipulations in accordance with the different meanings of various containers.
Upon reaching 10 months and 30 days of age, the infant began accidentally putting food into a container and playing
with it both in containers and on the table. When the infant reached 1 year, 1 month, and 22 days of age, we began to
observe a variety of ways in which containers were utilized, such as putting food in containers, returning food to the
containers in which it had been served, placing cutlery into containers, moving food between containers, moving food
on a plate, inserting and removing food from the mouth, taking and returning food, and placing food into the infant’s
The purpose of this study was to observe the rolling over behavior of beetles in relation to several objects. The insect
was placed on the floor in a supine position and an object was set beside it. 14 objects were used in this study; the
trench of the floor, a towel, a fan, a pan mat, a piece of newspaper, a toothpick, a thin or thick ribbon, a plastic string, a
sheet of tissue paper, a T-shirt, a perilla leaf, a sheet of scratch paper, a chopstick and the lid of a film case (see Fig.1 to
17). The insect was able to roll over taking advantages of several environmental properties; an edge, the texture or
the hole of the ground, the weight of an object which affords centrifugal force to insect's swinging motion and the gap
between solid objects and the ground. Altogether, we found the emergence of three kinds of environment-action
system: (1) a single limb - the ground system (see Fig.18a), (2) a soft object - multiple limbs-the round back - the
ground system (Fig.18b) and (3) a hard object - multiple limbs-the round back - the ground system (Fig. 18c).
This research attempts to analyze the creative process involved in drawing by examining the behavior of a skilled artist.
Drawing usually requires several hours because a realistic rendering of structure, texture, and shadow involves the
accurate perception and depiction of space in terms of both proportion and perspective. In this study, two and a half
hours were devoted to creating a drawing. The operation and coordination of the actions that comprised the process
of drawing were examined according to the points at which shifts in behavior occurred. The analyses revealed that
drawing consists of movements and characteristic changes over time. The drawing of objects, in particular, involves
"looking" clearly, which is reflected in postures that "close the distance or increase the distance from the picture".
The results suggest that changes in posture for visual perception, underpin the positions assumed by the artist and
control the process of drawing.
This study was designed to elucidate the processes and dynamics underlying the application of cosmetics by women.
I conducted semi-structured interviews with nine Japanese women who do and do not use makeup. By applying the
Trajectory and Equifinality Model (TEM) to the interview data, I constructed a model of the chronological order makeup acts generated and analysed the influence of society/culture on personal choices. The analyses revealed that
women experience two stages ([passive makeup] [voluntary makeup]) in their relationship with cosmetics and that
these serve as cues for different cultural situations. These steps also cause "self-reflection about the value and
meaning of makeup" and transform a newly acquired habit into a cultivated acts.
In an oral survey, Japanese home economics teachers at senior high schools said that the current home economics
textbook was awkward to use and difficult for students. Three kinds of discourse analysis revealed the problems with
this textbook: 1) the Table of Contents contained many duplications and inconsistencies; the writers of the textbook
seemed to conflict with each other and had little interest in the students. 2) Many descriptions in the textbook were
ambiguous; the text was unappealing and did not offer any substantial interrogation of the topic, so the textbook did not
attract the interest of students or encourage them to study the subject. 3) From a historical point of view, there was no
unified policy in the home economics textbook. Revision of the textbook and course of study are proposed.
This study clarifies how students listen to others in classroom situations with differing task structures, based on
Bakhtin’s principle of "internal dialogue" with other’s words. Utterances by two frequent speakers in two fifth grade
classrooms were analyzed. The results of the two case studies were as follows. First, the two students listened to
others while connecting their prior knowledge or their own experiences to these utterances during discussions that
focused on acquiring and sharing specific knowledge. Second, in discussions involving interacting with each idea and
elaborating each understanding, Student A listened to others relate their own understanding of the text, considering the
flow and theme of the discussion, whereas Student B seemed to have problems in "dialoguing" simultaneously with the
utterances that formed the flow of the discussion and with the words of shared texts, in addition to others’ utterances.
Third, this research suggests that the ways in which teachers respond, as well as the existence of shared texts, affect the
students’ acts of listening in situations with the same task structures.
The aim of this study was to explore the psychological meanings of Kanashibari based on narratives provided by
adolescents who had experienced this phenomenon. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 university
students, and the verbatim transcripts of these interviews served as the data for an interpretative phenomenological
analysis. The data revealed two themes that can be broadly described in terms of conflicts between dependence and
independence and between the "looking self" and the "looked-at self". The theme related to conflicts between
dependence and independence consisted of "dissatisfaction or suppression of dependence" and "anxiety or guilt about
independence". The theme concerning "conflicts between the looking self and the looked-at self" consisted of "crises
regarding self-identity and alienation", "consciousness of being looked at by others", and "consciousness of being
looked at by the ‘ideal self’". These themes were considered to be related to the conflicts that characterise