Japanese Journal of Qualitative Psychology
Online ISSN : 2435-7065
Volume 10 , Issue 1
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
  • Postural Control and Perception of Surface Layout
    Hiroe Yamazaki
    2011 Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 7-24
    Published: 2011
    Released: July 08, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the postural control involved in standing up with support in the context of an environmental structure. The occasions on which an infant 8-11 months of age stood with support were observed at his home. The routes followed by his four limbs were analyzed separately in terms of perceived surface layout and divided into three phases: the first contact with the vertical layout, the trajectory of standing up, and the subsequent trajectory. The results showed that the infant detected several kinds of vertically organized surface layouts and discriminated accordingly for each postural change. The data suggested that detection of vertical surface layouts and their related edges contributed both mechanically and visually to the emergence of standing up with support.
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  • The Discovery and Utilization of Containers
    Yoko Aoki
    2011 Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 25-45
    Published: 2011
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We conducted a longitudinal study of the meal-time behaviors of an infant to examine the development of object manipulation. At the age of 8 months, 27 days, this infant began to touch containers. Analysis 1 revealed different types of manipulation. Analysis 2 examined the manipulations involved in placing food or cutlery in containers and investigated the process of using manipulations in accordance with the different meanings of various containers. Upon reaching 10 months and 30 days of age, the infant began accidentally putting food into a container and playing with it both in containers and on the table. When the infant reached 1 year, 1 month, and 22 days of age, we began to observe a variety of ways in which containers were utilized, such as putting food in containers, returning food to the containers in which it had been served, placing cutlery into containers, moving food between containers, moving food on a plate, inserting and removing food from the mouth, taking and returning food, and placing food into the infant’s own dish.
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  • The Emergence of Environment-Action Systems
    Masato Sasaki
    2011 Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 46-62
    Published: 2011
    Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to observe the rolling over behavior of beetles in relation to several objects. The insect was placed on the floor in a supine position and an object was set beside it. 14 objects were used in this study; the trench of the floor, a towel, a fan, a pan mat, a piece of newspaper, a toothpick, a thin or thick ribbon, a plastic string, a sheet of tissue paper, a T-shirt, a perilla leaf, a sheet of scratch paper, a chopstick and the lid of a film case (see Fig.1 to 17). The insect was able to roll over taking advantages of several environmental properties; an edge, the texture or the hole of the ground, the weight of an object which affords centrifugal force to insect's swinging motion and the gap between solid objects and the ground. Altogether, we found the emergence of three kinds of environment-action system: (1) a single limb - the ground system (see Fig.18a), (2) a soft object - multiple limbs-the round back - the ground system (Fig.18b) and (3) a hard object - multiple limbs-the round back - the ground system (Fig. 18c).
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  • Role of Visual Perception in Changes of Posture
    Miho Nishizaki, Tetsushi Nonaka, Masato Sasaki
    2011 Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 64-78
    Published: 2011
    Released: July 08, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This research attempts to analyze the creative process involved in drawing by examining the behavior of a skilled artist. Drawing usually requires several hours because a realistic rendering of structure, texture, and shadow involves the accurate perception and depiction of space in terms of both proportion and perspective. In this study, two and a half hours were devoted to creating a drawing. The operation and coordination of the actions that comprised the process of drawing were examined according to the points at which shifts in behavior occurred. The analyses revealed that drawing consists of movements and characteristic changes over time. The drawing of objects, in particular, involves "looking" clearly, which is reflected in postures that "close the distance or increase the distance from the picture". The results suggest that changes in posture for visual perception, underpin the positions assumed by the artist and control the process of drawing.
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  • Ayae Kido
    2011 Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 79-96
    Published: 2011
    Released: July 08, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was designed to elucidate the processes and dynamics underlying the application of cosmetics by women. I conducted semi-structured interviews with nine Japanese women who do and do not use makeup. By applying the Trajectory and Equifinality Model (TEM) to the interview data, I constructed a model of the chronological order makeup acts generated and analysed the influence of society/culture on personal choices. The analyses revealed that women experience two stages ([passive makeup] [voluntary makeup]) in their relationship with cosmetics and that these serve as cues for different cultural situations. These steps also cause "self-reflection about the value and meaning of makeup" and transform a newly acquired habit into a cultivated acts.
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  • Ichiro Yatsuzuka
    2011 Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 97-115
    Published: 2011
    Released: July 08, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In an oral survey, Japanese home economics teachers at senior high schools said that the current home economics textbook was awkward to use and difficult for students. Three kinds of discourse analysis revealed the problems with this textbook: 1) the Table of Contents contained many duplications and inconsistencies; the writers of the textbook seemed to conflict with each other and had little interest in the students. 2) Many descriptions in the textbook were ambiguous; the text was unappealing and did not offer any substantial interrogation of the topic, so the textbook did not attract the interest of students or encourage them to study the subject. 3) From a historical point of view, there was no unified policy in the home economics textbook. Revision of the textbook and course of study are proposed.
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  • Two Case Studies of Students’ Utterances
    Tomonori Ichiyanagi
    2011 Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 116-134
    Published: 2011
    Released: July 08, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study clarifies how students listen to others in classroom situations with differing task structures, based on Bakhtin’s principle of "internal dialogue" with other’s words. Utterances by two frequent speakers in two fifth grade classrooms were analyzed. The results of the two case studies were as follows. First, the two students listened to others while connecting their prior knowledge or their own experiences to these utterances during discussions that focused on acquiring and sharing specific knowledge. Second, in discussions involving interacting with each idea and elaborating each understanding, Student A listened to others relate their own understanding of the text, considering the flow and theme of the discussion, whereas Student B seemed to have problems in "dialoguing" simultaneously with the utterances that formed the flow of the discussion and with the words of shared texts, in addition to others’ utterances. Third, this research suggests that the ways in which teachers respond, as well as the existence of shared texts, affect the students’ acts of listening in situations with the same task structures.
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  • Kyosuke Matsumoto
    2011 Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 135-157
    Published: 2011
    Released: July 08, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to explore the psychological meanings of Kanashibari based on narratives provided by adolescents who had experienced this phenomenon. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 university students, and the verbatim transcripts of these interviews served as the data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. The data revealed two themes that can be broadly described in terms of conflicts between dependence and independence and between the "looking self" and the "looked-at self". The theme related to conflicts between dependence and independence consisted of "dissatisfaction or suppression of dependence" and "anxiety or guilt about independence". The theme concerning "conflicts between the looking self and the looked-at self" consisted of "crises regarding self-identity and alienation", "consciousness of being looked at by others", and "consciousness of being looked at by the ‘ideal self’". These themes were considered to be related to the conflicts that characterise adolescence.
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