“Cyberbullying” appeared in the end of 2007 as a new problem for educators. Among discourse in order to prevent
Cyberbullying, the actions of youth who were using the internet as a means to interact with others were criticized
by educators and targeted for guidance. However, looking at it from the perspective of life guidance theory, when
adults criticize some act, youth have a tendency to try to conceal their having done that act. So, it could be viewed
that the act of interacting with others online would also be subject to this inclination. In this manuscript, from
this critical mindset, we analyzed the significance four junior high and high school girls gave their experiences
with these encounters based on an examination of their interviews during this rise of “Cyberbullying” discourse.
Through the result it became clear that those involved with the study, while being conscious of the risks associated
with using the internet and also opinion at large, concealed their actions so as not to cause concern to guardians and
teachers and other adults whose criticisms they had been conscious of. Moreover, the fact that those involved with
the study would hasten their concealment to avoid being seen in the same light as victims of crime via the internet
came to light.
This study investigated “Jishuhoiku” (independent childcare) as a setting for raising children. “Jishuhoiku”
(independent childcare) refers to a childcare activity in which parents look after infants in turns. A child-minder
working in an independent childcare group was interviewed in this study in order to elucidate her positions and
feelings toward children. The study then examined this independent childcare environment. The manner in which
she provided her narrative revealed two perspectives: “the existence of previous senior members” and “comparison.”
Previous senior members were thought to be reference individuals by whom the child-minder confirms the
significance of her daily activities. Her narrative on comparison included “negative reference” and “comparison
with existing childcare.” It is believed that the reality of practicing what is known as independent childcare is
confirmed through such behavior as denying the involvement of adults’ way of thinking and making comparisons
with existing childcare. The characteristics of “Jishuhoiku” (independent childcare) as a setting for raising children
were then examined according to three aspects: diversity, relationships without roles, and attitudes toward looking
after children. Those characteristics are shared by the different generation.
Parents of deaf children often feel anxious about their ability to interact with their children. It has been suggested
that this parental anxiety can negatively affect children’s language and social-emotional development. Early
intervention programs for children who are deaf have been strongly recommended and such programs have been
implemented in several ways. However, the situational characteristics of such interventions have not yet been
elucidated. In this study, support for mother-child communication was investigated using participant observation
in early intervention programs for children who are deaf. Episodes were recorded throughout the study and
then described. Findings indicate that mother-child communications are positively changed through a process
of scaffolding with a teacher as one of the “significant others” in the environment. It was also revealed that the
teacher’s involvement with the children was a dynamic rather than a static process, and that daily educational
practices benefit from the description of episodes and from the teachers’ reflection on their own practice.
This study focused on interactions during collaborative cognitive tool use in classroom activities, and examined
how structured lessons helped children with special needs to learn. A fifth grade classroom in an elementary school
was observed for a year as part of a collaborative practical research project with the teacher. In this classroom
there was one child with a developmental disorder. He had problems with reading, writing and lacked the ability
to pay full attention, and he impulsively avoided tasks or showed inappropriate behaviors, such as attacking his
classmates. This study qualitatively analyzed the relationship between his speech, actions and tools used during
a math lesson in which he successfully participated. The results showed that there was a characteristic lesson
structure. The teacher often made the pupil explain the meaning of presentations given by other children. Using
this method, children used cognitive tools collectively. Those who were listening always had to take the presenter’s
side. Listeners listened to the presentation attentively and supported the presenter’s thoughts. It was suggested
that the teacher had turned the lesson into a space in which the children entered each other’s Zone of Proximal
Why do the phenomenon and the discourse on “developmental disabilities” continue to prevail in society? The
purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning and function of this concept that I have obtained from my life
experiences. The data I use in this study were acquired from my fieldwork with a collaborator having “developmental
disabilities,” which were interpreted by the cyclical interpreting method that is used as phenomenological
hermeneutic. I played multiple roles in my relationship with the collaborator. From this data, I discovered and
interpreted that I experience anxiety, conflict, confrontation and friction, because I adhere to certain notions
about him. I also became aware of the expectations held by other people surrounding us. My attitude towards
“developmental disabilities” changed in order to avoid a crisis. I used the ambiguity of the concept to protect my
existence and the commonsense world in which I live.
Three patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) were interviewed to describe their experiences before
diagnosis and clarify how they felt with CSDH, which is often misinterpreted as dementia. Narratives of the
3 patients were discussed to relive their experience and understand their feelings. The narratives revealed that
although they failed to perform some of the activities of daily living (ADLs), they could finally do them after
retrials and did not have the same troubles in succession. These experiences were not noticed as disease due
to their diverse ADLs. In elderly patients, symptoms of CSDH were misinterpreted as those associated with
aging. They presented with severe malaise and language disorder, and could not complain of their conditions by
themselves at their first visit to the clinic. As the family rather than the patient explained the patient’s condition
to the physician, the patient was misinterpreted as if he/she does not have the consciousness of disease. In
conclusion, patient narratives may help describe the extensive experiences of patients.
This study reveals the miscommunication and repair process between a Deaf and a Hearing individual and
considers how each party communicates. Two interviews were conducted by the first author (Hearing H) with a
Deaf person (Deaf A). Japanese Sign Language and signed Japanese were used in the interviews, and conversation
analysis was conducted. The sessions were found to be affected by expression channels, categorization, and the
interview conditions. Miscommunication occurred easily when spoken Japanese and signed Japanese were mixed.
Japanese Sign Language allowed Deaf A to talk fluently; however, Hearing H’s ability to respond became weaker.
The listener occasionally categorized the speaker’s talk simply as Deaf or Hearing, and did not grasp the speaker’s
message. The communication between the two individuals was considered to be cross-cultural communication.
The results suggest that examining the entire interview situation promotes mutual understanding.
The purpose of this study was to describe how mothers of children with developmental disabilities live with
their family, focusing on episodes of their everyday life. This study aimed at understanding various meanings
the mothers created in family life. The author called it “narrative-discovering approach”, compared with
“problem-solving approach”. Mothers raising children with developmental disabilities were interviewed about
communications between with their children, and with their husbands. The data was analyzed using Modified
Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). Results from these two investigations revealed that dedicated relationship
of mother-child was supported by mothers’ desire to understand “my son/daughter” not “disabled child”, and
mothers constantly reframed the conflicts within marriage in their mind to keep the family ties. Findings indicated
that mothers spontaneously involved their families and got through difficult phases with flexibility in family fields.
In addition to “the story of conflict” described by previous studies of mothers of disabled children, this study
discovered “the story of practice with flexibility” of mothers to sustain peaceful family lives.
Yips is a unique loss of fine-motor skills occurring in sports, such that the game action cannot be completed even
in practice situations. They differ from slumps and game anxiety. Several players are forced to leave competitions
because of yips. In order to develop prevention strategies, we compare the underlying psychological processes
of multiple yips experiences to understand occurrence patterns. Semi-structured interviews were conducted
with seven players who had experienced yips. Data were analyzed using the Trajectory Equifinality Model. The
results suggest that yips can be divided into two stages, “wild pitching in specific situations” and “wild pitching
in all throws”. A common feature of yips occurrence was emotional issues that resulted in wild pitches. This
investigation is significant as it clarifies whether wild pitches have technical or psychological causes, suggesting
that yips elicits cyclical wild pitches. Yips could be overcome by repeating throws that they could perform or by
not making throws for a certain period of time. For early recovery from yips, it is important that the people around
the players understand yips.
In this article we examined how the use of a worksheet mediated problem-solving in small groups by conducting a
qualitative comparison of the process in two groups that were each provided with worksheets in a different context:
single distribution (one worksheet for the group), or individual distribution (one worksheet for each learner). In
the single distribution group, all the students simultaneously confirmed and shared their understanding and they
paid joint attention or pointed to external representations on the worksheet together. Thus, it was suggested that the
worksheet in the single distribution group mediated the construction and sharing of group understanding through
discussion. However, because not all the students externalized their ideas on the worksheet, role assignment of
externalization occurred. On the other hand, in the individual distribution group, all the members externalized
their own ideas or understanding on their own worksheets. Moreover, they also took ideas from other sources and
integrated these into their worksheets and elaborated on their own understanding. Thus, it was suggested that the
worksheet in the individual distribution group mediated students’ own understanding through interaction.