The interviewee, Jiro Kawakita (1920-), is the creator of the KJ method and a pioneer in field studies. The KJ method
is a creative, qualitative method that incorporates the following six concepts: 1) Two aspects of field studies: (a)
interviews and observations in the field, and (b) the creative synthesis of field data; 2) Bottom-up: construction from
data to theories; 3) Description using cards: free manipulable, allowing multiple combinations; 4) Meaningful
integration of a gradual index using miscellaneous data cards; 5) Synthesis and composition using illustrative diagrams;
and 6) Shared understanding and estimation using both diagrams and verbalization.
The present study analyzed the transcripts of oral narratives that were told, as stories, to school children by four
disaster victims of the 1995 Kobe Quake. The story tellers are members of a voluntary group, called Group-117, whose
aim is to pass such experiences on to the next generation. The analyses of the narratives focused on the ways the
narrators told the stories rather than on the narrative content, using narrative analytical concepts such as "by-players"
and "exchange of viewpoints." The results showed that, in the narratives of Ms. Shono and Ms. Asai, where a particular
person played the role of a by-player, the exchange of viewpoints between the narrators themselves and their respective
by-players underlay the basic structure of their narratives. In contrast, it was the audiences in Mr. Hasegawa's story, and
"Kobe City" in Ms. Ichihara's story, that played the role of by-players. In all four narratives, audiences were also
involved in the exchange of viewpoints due to the prevalence of a subjunctive mood during the narration, even when
audiences themselves did not act as by-players.
From the standpoint of "generative theory," this study attempts to explore a new ontological foundation of human
formation in "aging society as reflexive modernity." Section 1 recognizes aging society as "reflexive modernity." On
this historical recognition, I ground the "generative theory" as the meta-theoretical standpoint (theoretical motive) of
this study, making clear its cognitive purpose. Section 2 puts into definite shape the theoretical motive and cognitive
purpose that are made clear in Section 1: "radical aging" as a perspective, "reflexive socialization" as a generative
sensitizing concept, and the "biographical approach" as a method. Then research questions pertaining to this study are
constructed. Section 3 describes my choice of the intersection of "turning point in midlife" and "sense of Inkyo" in
contemporary Japan as a research area. Section 4 presents several life stories that were generated at the research area.
In Sections 5 and 6, these life stories are analyzed to discover the three contexts of "trans-socialization," "asocialization,"
and "re-socialization," and socialization is reorganized as a concept that encompasses the dynamism of
these three contexts. Thus the "original basis of meaning" that is illuminated by the dynamism of these three contexts is
made clear. As a result, I introduce the "transcendental horizon" that is generated by a reflexive look at the "original
basis of meaning" as a new ontological foundation in the study of "aging society as reflexive modernity."
This case study categorized the meaning of "aphasia" as it was constructed in the narrative of an individual with
aphasia who was said to have adapted to his disability. The informant was a man in his 50s who had sustained aphasia
for seven years. The researcher collected data using formal and informal interviews and conducted a qualitative
analysis, focusing on the "meaning of aphasic conditions." Five categories of the meaning emerged: "aphasia as
negative changes of self," "aphasia as a temporary condition," "aphasia as a target of challenge," "aphasia as a shared
attribute," and "aphasia as a social theme." It seems that these categories reflected the informant's images of himself
and the world, which had developed in the above order in his lifestory over time. Also, the categories themselves, being
used in his self-presentation, constituted a specific structure that involves his multiple self-images. The meaning of
aphasia, which increasingly becomes multi-layered as one adapts to one's disability, can be a channel through which
one can see the lived experience of a person with aphasia.
The psychological meanings of "Musubi" (connecting and generating) among distant phenomena were analyzed in image narratives of Tarkovsky's film "Mirror". In this film selves and others, such as a mother and a wife and a father and a son, had the similar figures that could transfer each other. The concepts of similarity, transfer and repetition in narratives were discussed from following 4 points: 1) the relationship of selves and others, 2) narrative selves, 3) comparison with the concept of Bakhtin's "dialogue", and 4) repeating time.
Although many discussions have been held on the timing of weaning from various perspectives such as dietetics,
dentistry, and psychology, the views of mothers have been neglected. To explore the internal experiences of mothers
related to weaning, I interviewed 23 Japanese mothers. Ideas that influenced weaning decisions were classified into
four categories, based on the standpoint from which maternal references were made: 1) maternal personal standpoint
(physical pain with lactation etc.), 2) children's health management standpoint (nutritional management, etc.), 3) social
convention standpoint (critical views of neighbors toward lactation, etc.), and 4) children's standpoint (psychological
meaning of sucking for children, etc.). Mothers who weaned early (when children were 18 months old or younger)
referred to nutritional reasons and seldom reported weaning conflicts. In contrast, most of the mothers who attempted
weaning later (when children were 19 months old or older), or who continued lactation, reported conflicts between the
children's standpoint and other standpoints. The mothers who continued lactation seemed to cope with the conflicts by
reaching mutual understandings about weaning with their children.
The personal history was described of a girl who cried frequently in preschool. Analyses of cry episodes, coding of
field notes and other data, and analyses of the relationship with a boy who caused her crying revealed the differences
between the background of crying in the first half of the school year and those in the second half. Transition from home
to school seemed to cause her crying in the first half of the year. This kind of crying decreased over the course of her
preschool life. On the other hand, an ambivalent relationship with one boy seemed to be the cause of her crying in the
second half of the year. The meaning of preschool lives in the personal history and personal growth of children was
The author discussed the methodological problems of the analyses of narrative texts (Saijo, 2002; Yamada, 2002) from
the standpoint of experimental psychology. Main critiques were as follows: (a) their descriptions of hypotheses were
abstract and ambiguous, (b) every illustration could not guarantee any logical justifications in hypothesis-testing, and
(c) their arguments had some important inferential jumps. It was suggested that the analysis of narrative texts was not
necessary to discuss their themes and, instead, the author offered several experimental designs to test their hypotheses
in terms of random sampling, control group, comparison group, control period, extraneous variable, and intervening
variable. Lastly, some promising narrative analyses using on-line chat, bulletin boards, and e-mails were proposed.
The purpose of this study was to restructure what is known as "field psychology based on model construction." First,
the epistemology that comprehends objectivist quantitative approaches and social constructionist qualitative
approaches was advanced. Second, the concepts of "structure" and "model" were reconsidered. Third, two core
concepts for evaluation, "trustworthiness" and "construction trail" were proposed. Fourth, a new framework for
"generalization based on analogy" was suggested. The theory discussed and formulated in this paper was named
"structure-construction qualitative psychology."