The Japanese word for feeling is “kawaii (cuteness),” which is now used worldwide but is difficult to explain
because it is a “feeling.” This study used a bottom-up and mix-media qualitative method designed for this research
to construct visual models for feelings that arise in everyday life: the “Diverse Joint Method (DJM) for Visual
Narratives.” Three researchers worked in parallel to construct three different diagrams from the same 92 kawaiirelated visual images. Based on the common features among the three diagrams, such as “face and expression,”
“round and soft,” “action and gesture,” and “space and atmosphere,” we constructed a simulation model, “a visual
image of super-kawaii.” By focusing on diverse images based on different perspectives on “kawaii,” we identified
new features of this phenomenon, such as “gathering similar ones” and “wrapped ones.”
This study analyzed a detailed videotaped conversation to examine human interactions. The results of the analysis
suggest that “being videotaped” not only restrains the participants’ behavior but was also treated as a resource
to develop the interaction. In some segments of the data, the participants paid attention to, or referred directly
to, aspects of the environment around them, such as the camera. This finding suggests that the participants were
aware that the activity they were engaged in was being videotaped and, hence, that it differed from the preceding
activity. In other segments, the participants deduced the experimental problem from the assigned task and jointly
constructed to solve it. This suggests that an assigned task may not only constrain the participant but also can be
utilized as a potential resource.
In live sports television commentary, when the announcer and the commentator make comments, occasionally
they need to indicate the events promptly which emerge from the ongoing situation on the screen. In this research,
we investigated live auto racing television commentaries to describe how they accomplish this task by deploying
linguistic resources. We show how the announcer and commentator use deictic expressions with ‘Ko’ particles (or
in combination with other interjections like ‘Ah’) and the interjection ‘Hora’ to achieve such exophoric reference.
These linguistic resources function in different ways. The ‘Ko’ particle ‘Kore’, which is located at beginning
of the utterance, is use to attract others’ attention to the unfolding situation, and show the speaker’s grasp of the
situation at the same time, whereas the interjection ‘Hora’ is used to indicate the events that the speaker predicted
before. We also show such exophoric referential practices are involved with the embodiments of the announcer
and the commentators’ identities in the television commentary.
Regarding home healthcare, some implements that are not used are left behind in the home of a patient and a
caregiver when they are a family. Sometimes, the progression of some illnesses, such as striatonigral degeneration,
renders many of the patient’s implements (e.g., wheelchairs) useless. In one family’s case, some implements,
such as a remote control, were left behind in the same condition as when the patient had used them, despite
the caregiver’s tidiness and high level of organization. This is because the caregiver and patient are both so
accustomed to using these implements that they do not consider the latter as being separate from their bodies (i.e.,
embodiment) and, hence, they continue to use them. The significance of this consideration is as follows: (1) the
fact that the patient is not using the implements suggests that the caregiver is not fully aware of the progression
of the disease, and (2) the memory of the family and their sense of space and time are maintained through
their embodiment of these implements. This is observed through video ethnography. The paper proposes the
effectiveness of video ethnography, as well.
This paper examines the normative aspects of situational awareness in service encounters. A conversation analytic
study of service interaction was conducted at an Italian restaurant in Japan to observe how service providers (waiters)
judge whether customers have made a choice or not, and how they determine when to approach customers for
taking their orders. The results of the analysis showed that waiters normally catch cues that convey that customers
have disengaged from the activity of making choices. When waiters fail to notice such cues, customers hail them.
This behavior demonstrates customers’ normative preference for being noticed by service providers over hailing
them in service encounters.
The purpose of this study was to examine ways of building and maintaining a positive organizational climate by
describing an actual situation. We focused on a ward that had a positive organizational climate in the 1970s. The
study’s participants included a chief nurse and two staff nurses who had worked on the same ward. Narratives
were gathered through a group interview. The data were analyzed based on four frameworks based on the results
of quantitative studies. The results suggest that the chief nurse's sense of control was built on the ideal of a deep
consideration for patients, the activities that led to achieving this ideal, and the positive feedback it created. The
chief nurse’s sense of control was increased by fostering these characteristics in others. The staff nurses’ sense of
control was enhanced by modeling the chief nurse’s behavior. Intimacy among the staff developed through “enough
information exchange” and “emotional exchange without reservation.” The sense of control and intimacy among
the staff nurses increased morale and improved the atmosphere of the ward.
Currently, there is an upward trend in the number of Chinese visiting Japan. Many of them who come to study
stay on for more than 10 years to work in Japan. This paper uses an interview approach to examine the identity
of a male Chinese worker who has been living in Japan for more than 10 years. The life story interview reveals
the way his life events have determined his present identity. His identity has been constructed through a series
of negotiations with the societies and communities in China and Japan. His identity carved out of his success
in studying abroad is affected by the “master narrative” in China. This success is reformed in the context of his
life in Japan because underlying it is the influence of constraints experienced while living in another country, his
significant others, and their shared “model story” of running a company within the community of Chinese residents.
In this paper, I elaborate on how his identity in his quest for work in Japan is constructed by his surroundings.
This study aimed to describe the process of Japanese sexual offenders in detail. Referring to the grounded theory
model, this study qualitatively analyzed the following data from 33 probationers and parolees: (a) the narrative
of the offenders, and (b) the content of free-writing sections of worksheets they were instructed to fill in during
the special treatment program at probation offices. The resulting model consisted of 15 categories including
key precursors of sexual offending such as problems in the offender’s life and cognitive factors. Furthermore,
this study revealed that many participants experienced serious and/or multiple problems. Additionally, results
indicated that these problems provoked a cycle of coping with the issues, an unstable psychological state, and
their perception of said problems, which led to the cognitive factors. The clinical implications of the model for
assessment and treatment of sexual offenders were then discussed.
Children’s peer culture is a stable set of activities or routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children produce
and share in interaction with peers. We observed a preschool class for two years using a peer-culture focused
perspective. One particular type of play, “vehicle play”, in which children constructed vehicles using large selflocking building bricks and drove these vehicles, emerged, disappeared, reemerged, and diffused in the class.
After reaching a peak that lasted two months, the frequency of “vehicle play” decreased and finally disappeared.
This type of play first spread among boys, and then among girls. Perceived attributes of “vehicle play” (i.e.,
observability, compatibility and trialability), context of preschool lives (i.e., peer relationships, physical and
sociocultural environments and play situations in free play time), and teacher’s actions directed at children had
an effect on formation and change of “vehicle play”. Individual differences were suggested in participation, in
meaning, and in contributions to the formation and change of “vehicle play”. This play resulted in important
consequences to individuals and to the preschool class.
This study focuses on joint attention in small-group learning during lessons in order to analyze the joint action
microscopically. In this study, “joint attention” refers to the phenomenon in which two individuals gaze at
the same object connectively, which can be an apparatus for microscopic analysis of the relation between
communication and positional relation. To contribute to the validity of this concept as an apparatus for research
on small-group learning, this study aimed to clarify the function of joint attention in a specific case of social
studies in junior high school. The analysis of several acts based on positional relation revealed the followings.
1) Joint attention promoted thinking about the educational contents of the materials on the desks and allowed it
to be generated to intercompare how to think mediated by physical things. 2) The function has some important
moments, such as the act of pointing, the light/ sound relation, and the identification of the physical things.
The development of medical technology has extended life expectancy, but it has also had unwanted effects in our life.
We report a case study of a family who chose to feed their elderly parent with cognitive difficulties by using a gastrostomy
tube. The decision-making process for adopting gastrostomy was investigated with a series of semi-structured and
informal interviews given to the family caregivers. Collected data were analyzed and were compiled as ethnography.
We investigated the everyday life of the elderly parent at home and at a care home and found the following three points.
The meaning of gastrostomy is determined by the circumstances perceived by people involved in the process. Prior
knowledge of gastrostomy and preparation for facing the end-of-life are effective in handling an elderly person’s rapidly
deteriorating health condition. The family members found peace in their daily life by regarding gastrostomy as a tool