A cold chamber has been fabricated for the nucleation studies of newly synthesized silver halides by drop freezing technique. The ice nucleating activities of AgI-CuBr, AgI-CuI-KI, AgI-AgCl-CuI and AgI-CuBr-CuI systems have been discussed on the basis of ionic polarizability of the atoms. It is observed that the addition of cations with different sizes and high polarizability increases the ice nucleating ability. It is also suggested that the ternary combination can be considered for cloud seeding rather than double iodate combination.
With an analogous process of water film formation from water droplet on a glass plate, Bi - Te thin film was synthesized at room temperature by mutual fusion of adjacent metallic nano-particles after depositing on a substrate using the Cool-liquefaction of nano-particles. The deposited particles yielded very clear lattice pattern and it was confirmed that these particles were binary compounds and had the crystal structure of hexagonal BiTe (Bi2Te). The resulting thin film showed that the thin film could be formed without any annealing process at room temperature even for binary systems. This possibility on the thin film synthesis at room temperature will open a new way to the production of true hybrid thin films between metals and organic multi-function materials.
Fuel oils currently employed in marine machinery systems are of the lowest grade heavy fuel oil, which is a mixture of various hydrocarbons with high concentration of sulfur, nitrogen and residual carbons as well as metal components. The combustion of marine fuel oils leads to the generation of high-concentration aerosol, i.e., MPM (Marine Particulate Matter), but the characteristics of combustion products and its contribution to MPM are not well understood yet. IMO (International Maritime Organization) is making urgent efforts to grasp the actual state of MPM emission from marine traffic, and seeking countermeasures. The present work studied the formation and decomposition of particulate matter during the spray combustion of marine heavy fuel oil with an industrial- scale stable diffusion flame, focusing on the influence of air/fuel ratio. As a result, sprayed droplets of marine fuel oil are well mixed with combustion air both inside and near the flame funnel cone. Pyrolysis reactions are dominant upstream of the flame, where a large number of unburned droplets exist contributing the formation of THC and SOF. It is shown that the formation of particulate matter is reduced by increasing the air/fuel ratio.