エアロゾル研究
Online ISSN : 1881-543X
Print ISSN : 0912-2834
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27 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
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特集1「大気有機エアロゾルの物理・化学的性質」
特集2「次世代のエアロゾル科学・技術を拓く」
  • 萩野 浩之, 関口 和彦, 坂本 和彦
    27 巻 (2012) 1 号 p. 62-70
    公開日: 2012/04/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    We intensively monitored gas and aerosol compositions near a national road, Route 463, in Saitama, Japan in March 2010. Submicron aerosol composition was measured with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP). Gas-phase measurements were performed with a typical chemiluminescence instrument for detecting NOX and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). NOX concentrations were highly correlated with black carbon (BC) concentrations (r=0.919, n=223, p<0.01) near the road; in contrast, NOX were poorly correlated with organic aerosol (OA) concentrations (r=0.439, n=184, p<0.1). HR-ToF-AMS measurements facilitated the determination of organic-mass-to-carbon ratio (average 1.36, range 1.25-1.50) and oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio (average 0.18, range 0.08-0.29). This study also demonstrates the utility of chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis with SOA and POA mass spectra as source data to determine the apportionment of secondary OA (SOA) and primary OA (POA) within OA and the source contributions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis apportioned oxygenated OA (OOA) and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) within the OA samples. The SOA/OA and OOA/OA ratios obtained by these two models were 34% and 43%, respectively. These results indicate that not only traffic-related sources but also SOA, including aged OA, contributed substantially to OA concentrations observed at the roadside.
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  • 森田 淳, 王 青躍, 龔 秀民, 仲村 慎一, 鈴木 美穂, 中島 拓也, 関口 和彦, 中島 大介, 三輪 誠
    27 巻 (2012) 1 号 p. 71-77
    公開日: 2012/04/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently, prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis has been increasing, and it is observed highly in the Kanto area of Japan. As a cause of the high prevalence in Kanto area, we focused attention on 3-nitrotyrosines contained in allergen protein that cause the immune reactions and enhance an immunogenicity of allergen proteins. In this study, we measured the size distribution of airborne Cry j 1 concentrations and the relative quantities of airborne Cry j 1 containing 3-nitrotyrosine; and evaluated an apoptosis inducibility of 3-nitrotyrosine for HeLa cell.
     Cry j 1 were highly observed as fine particles (≦1.1 µm) in the urban atmosphere of Saitama city, Japan. We succeeded for the first time in detecting Cry j 1 containing 3-nitrotyrosine in the urban atmosphere as the probable evidence of chemical modification of Cry j 1 by air pollutants. Cry j 1 that exists in the particle sizes smaller than 7.0 µm contained higher probabilities of 3-nitrotyrosine residues compared with Cry j 1 in the particle sizes larger than 7.0 µm. Moreover, we clarified that 3-nitrotyrosine induces HeLa cell (epidermoid cell) apoptosis.
     From these results, it is suggested that further investigations are needed for the behavior and health effect of Cry j 1 and Cry j 1 containing 3-nitrotyrosine in respirable particles.
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研究速報
  • 今井 健之, 須田 洋, 浅野 幸康, 山内 俊幸, Georgios PYRGIOTAKIS, James MCDEVITT, P ...
    27 巻 (2012) 1 号 p. 78-80
    公開日: 2012/04/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study is aimed at finding the sterilization effect of electrostatic atomized water particles. We selected Serratia marcescens as a target bacteria,since it causes nosocomminal infections and opportunistic infections. We observed morphological changes of Serratia marcescens using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) after exposure to Electrostatic Atomized Water Particles.
     It was found that the electrostatic atomized water particles can inactivate Serratia marcescens at a high efficiency (98.7%) within 90 minutes. We observed that the outer membrane of Serratia marcescens is seriously damaged by the exposure to electrostatic atomized water particles for 90 minutes. Further study is needed to clarify what action of the electrostatic atomized water particles causes this morphological change in Serratia marcescens.
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研究論文
  • 藤本 敏行, 山中 真也, 空閑 良壽
    27 巻 (2012) 1 号 p. 81-89
    公開日: 2012/04/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Generation of sulfuric acid from air containing SO2 and the growth of sulfuric acid aerosol are an important process in the formation of atmospheric aerosol. In this study, laboratory experiments on photo-oxidation of SO2 and generation of secondary sulfuric acid aerosol were carried out. Numerical model on the growth of binary component aerosol of water and sulfuric acid was also developed. The model calculation of generation and growth of secondary sulfuric aerosol was conducted by coupling the aerosol growth model with both overall reaction model of generation of sulfuric acid from SO2 and parameterized homogeneous binary nucleation model. As expected, the present model calculation underestimated the particle growth because the condensation and evaporation of water vapor were not included. However, the model calculations successfully explained the decrease in number concentration and increase in particle size at longer residence time qualitatively.
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技術論文
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