Despite preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and total mesorectal excision improving the local control for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), oncologic outcomes and survival were not significantly improved because the main prognostic factor is distant metastasis. Thus, total neoadjuvant chemotherapy (TNT) as a novel approach has been proposed to improve chemotolerance. Since the first randomized phase II trial of TNT versus standard CRT demonstrated in 2012, many prospective and retrospective studies have been published. The initial consensus from TNT studies was that pathological complete response, pathological response of the main tumor, and local control are more favorable at TNT than at CRT. Furthermore, recent studies such as the PAPIDO trial and PRODIGE 23 trial made a major breakthrough of the treatment of TNT, showing that TNT improves the disease-free survival compared to standard treatment with long-course CRT.In addition, several innovative findings of TNT were clarified by prospective phase II trial. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in TNT based on the findings of pivotal clinical trials for patients with LARC.
Hemorrhoids, the most common anorectal disease, give rise to symptoms such as bleeding, prolapse, and pruritus. The treatment for advanced hemorrhoids (Grade III or IV) is gradually shifting toward minimally invasive procedures. These procedures focus on reduction of blood flow in hemorrhoids. Conventional hemorrhoidectomy (CH), also known as Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson hemorrhoidectomy, is considered as the standard treatment for Grade III and IV hemorrhoids because it achieves the lowest recurrence rate. Over the years, alternative minimally invasive techniques such as stapled hemorrhoidopexy and transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD) have been developed. A new, effective sclerosant, aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA), has been developed in Japan and has been used for all grades of hemorrhoids; however, its effectiveness declines over time. Other minimally invasive, nonsurgical procedures, including rubber band ligation, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, and infrared coagulation, have also been performed for Grade III hemorrhoids. Those minimally invasive treatments improve bleeding and prolapse and are highly recommended for patients who are unfit for CH. THD with mucopexy or ALTA sclerotherapy has also been performed for Grade IV hemorrhoids. However, the recurrence rate after ALTA sclerotherapy for Grade IV hemorrhoids was higher than that for Grade III lesions in our case study. In conclusion, minimally invasive treatments are a valid alternative for patients with advanced hemorrhoids after clear explanation of recurrence rates and possible complications.
Objectives: This study aims to investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the situation of acute appendicitis (AA) with respect to patients' and general practitioners' behaviors in a general community hospital in Japan.
Methods: The surgical outcomes and periods from symptom onset to medical presentation besides practitioners' referral time for consecutive AA patients were compared between the control (January 2016 to March 2020) and COVID-19 periods (April 2020 to April 2021).
Results: Eighty-three patients who underwent emergency surgery for AA were reviewed. Complicated appendicitis significantly increased in the COVID-19 period (63.6% vs. 31.2%, P = 0.023). In the COVID-19 period, the time from symptom onset to the medical presentation (2.2 vs. 0.9 days, P < 0.001) was significantly longer than in the control period. Among the patients who first presented to a general practitioner, the referral time from the practitioner to our hospital was significantly longer in the COVID-19 period (1.6 vs. 0.7 days, P = 0.017). Furthermore, among patients with a fever of higher than 38°C at medical presentation, the time from symptom onset to medical presentation was significantly longer in the COVID-19 period (3.0 vs. 0.7 days, P = 0.015). There was no difference in severe postoperative complications.
Conclusions: Hesitation to seek surgical treatment for AA was seen in both the patients and practitioners in the COVID-19 period. The delay in surgical treatment presumably led to the increase in severe AA. In a pandemic era, timely care for emergent conditions is a crucial challenge.
Objectives: The diagnosis of patients with chronic constipation is very complicated. This study aimed to develop a simple imaging classification for the diagnosis of chronic constipation by abdominal computed tomography (CT).
Methods: Sixty-two patients who underwent abdominal CT in our hospital between January and June 2022 were enrolled. The CT values of the stool in the rectum and cecum were measured in patients with chronic constipation (C group) and in those without (non-C group).
Results: A strong correlation was observed between the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and the CT value of rectal stool. Furthermore, the rectal stool CT value was significantly higher in patients with chronic constipation than in those without. The CT value of cecal stool did not differ between the two groups. The cecal stool CT value was significantly higher in patients with severe constipation (BSFS 1) than in those with BSFS 2-6. A cutoff CT value of 100 was selected as the optimal value for indicating chronic constipation.
Conclusions: Abdominal CT was useful in the diagnosis of chronic constipation. If the patient had constipation, the optimal cutoff CT value was 100.
Objectives: Postoperative paralytic ileus (POI) is one of the most common and troublesome complications following colorectal surgery. However, to date, the risk factors for POI remain unclear. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for POI following laparoscopic colorectal surgery in advanced-age patients.
Methods: The clinical data of 124 patients aged ≥75 years who underwent curative colorectal surgery from January 2018 to December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The relationship between POI and clinicopathological data including sarcopenia and visceral fat obesity was then assessed. Sarcopenia was defined as a low skeletal muscle mass index; visceral obesity, visceral fat with an area ≥100 cm2 on computed tomography at the level of the third lumbar vertebra; and sarcobesity, sarcopenia with visceral obesity.
Results: The rate of POI was 9% (12/124 patients), and all the affected patients improved with conservative treatment. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, sarcopenia and sarcobesity were significant predictive factors for POI.
Conclusions: Sarcopenia and sarcobesity may be risk factors for POI in patients aged ≥75 years after laparoscopic colorectal surgery.