In this paper I study about a rural self governing collectivity at the Tada village in the NanYo (south of the Iyo) including the Uwa basin, south-west of the Ehime Prefecture. I refer to the NanYo's history from ancient era to present days. That is, 1) Status of NanYo under the Ritsuryo legal codes. 2) The social structure of Early Modern village system in NanYo. 3) The political and social structure of the new Tada administrative village after the Meiji Restoration, in 1890. 4) Self governance of the people after the administrative consolidation of 6 villages into the Uwa-town in 1954, and that of 5 towns into the Seiyo-city in 2004. 5) The collective life of inhabitants and residents in the Tada rural area in present days.
By this research I would like to clarify the concept of “community” , which is made up of multilayer structures. In the bases it existed the rural “commune” before Ritsuryo legal codes. Ritsuryo system went down from the Miyako (Capital) to the Kuni (for example Iyo country) , Gun (Uwa county) , and Go (Iwano area) in order to control rural communes or villages. But in early modern era Gun system was changed for the Kumi (unit of several villages) system in the Uwajima Clan. Then Meiji Restoration changed the Kuni into the Prefectures. Tada's rural 4 villages turned into the end organization of the Modern State as new Tada-village, Uwa-town, Seiyo-city, and it seems that the people have lost their autonomy at all. But people's self governance stays now in their daily human relationships, not combine enough with the local autonomy's reformations. So it is necessary to interface with each other to develop mutually the local sovereign power. The Tada people's motto for their life-philosophy is “Freedom, Justice and Friendship” which was taught by the President of Tada Junior High in the age of 1953-63.
In this work, from case studies of communities in the lower reaches of the Tone River, I clarify why people are able to carry out disaster prevention measures reasonably from the viewpoint of regional management. The thing to notice in these examples is that when it comes to disaster planning, hope gathers in the duties that regional communities accomplish, however in general, this is because disaster planning is something that is difficult for regional communities to tackle. Communities have carried out disaster response through regional management. From case studies, it becomes apparent that there are same logics throughout both traditional regional management and modern regional management. That is 1) the fact that they seek better ways of receiving a flood on the presumption that they will receive a flood, and 2) The fact that they adopt counter-measure ideas, such as that things that consider not only emergencies but are also useful in everyday life will consequently be effective even in times of disaster. In other words, the carrying out of disaster prevention measures through regional management signifies that the carrying out of general disaster planning through backwards-facing ideas also includes a facet of forward-facing region building. This is considered to be linked to reasonable regional disaster prevention, and consequently linked to the formation of disaster culture.
In recent years, public services are being made more efficient at an accelerating pace. Public hospital reforms are part of that effort. Medical services cannot be supplied profitably in farming and mountain areas, where public hospitals are the core suppliers of medical care. This paper, which clarifies the effects of medical reorganization in farming and mountain areas, elucidates problems of hospital transfer arrangements associated with reorganization, with emphasis on family behavior. The study area is Tome city, Miyagi Prefecture, where municipal hospitals were reorganized as clinics without beds. Results revealed that, after leaving the hospital, patients changed hospitals several times to continue their access to medical care. Repeated movements were observed frequently between homes and hospitals. Patients were compelled to leave hospitals before they had recovered from symptoms. Furthermore, transferring patients to distant hospitals affected patients’family caregivers by increasing the burdens of transportation, and by affecting or cancelling employment. These effects were recognized even in large families, which had been perceived traditionally as having high life-security functions.