The “Industrial Waste Illegal Dumping Game” is based on a simulated social dilemma structure with aspects of asymmetry of incentive and information, one way flow of waste, and trust game. There are five different types of players in this game: the producing industries who produce money and waste; the mid-process industries who can reduce waste; the terminal industries who reclaim waste in landfill; the first and the second carriers who convey the waste. All players have to make decisions between cooperation (appropriate disposition and commission) and non-cooperation (illegal dumping). Eight games were conducted and the following are the results obtained: 1) Illegal dumping decreased over phases. 2) The players in downstream of the waste flow did more illegal dumping. 3) The Producing industry did not pay enough money to allow appropriate disposition, because they feared paying for potential fines and environmental restoration after all sessions are completed. Lack of initial spending money brought about more illegal dumping, causing later defrayment of greater costs. 4) Players who could not move were likely to be evaluated as less trustful, while those who could move were likely be evaluated as trustful.
In this paper, how governments can develop educational materials for games is discussed. In this case study, three kinds of game materials for environmental education, which were developed by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment in 2002, are employed. These materials were developed mainly by game experts based on comments from industrial organizations and working groups, which consisted of Non-Governmental Organizations and environmental experts. After publication, the materials were announced on television, radio and newspapers, and as such 500 prepared copies for each of the kinds of games was sold out within 3 days. From this case, it suggests that the benefits of developing games by the government seem to be accepted easily by teachers and has easier involvement of stakeholders. During the initial planning stage, it is desirable to thoroughly examine why games are to be developed by the Government and to seek the advice of gaming experts. In the development of a game, there are problems to overcome such as abstractizing the theme maintaining neutrality and accuracy. Also, after completion, notification and distributional method to the targets in efficient ways are the other difficulties.
It is urgent and important to cultivate the capacity of citizens in reducing damage due to disasters, especially under the pressing threat of the Tokai or Tonankai Earthquake disaster. This study established a workshop program, which developed citizens’ capacity to mitigate and prepare for disasters in their local community. This program contains three workshops; 1)awareness of hazards and enumerating local vulnerability and possible damage, 2)listing objectives of disaster mitigation and preparedness of the region, 3)embodying a disaster action plan for the area. We applied this method to the project of increasing the capacity of disaster reduction by citizens living in Nagoya, Aichi prefecture, Japan. The result was that they succeeded in producing their own disaster action plan. However, the awareness of extending disaster action to other people living in the same area did not increase.
In this paper, from the perspective of a situated learning approach, I examined how interactions between players and facilitators in simulation and gaming sessions are organized in a socially situated way. In particular, by using the concept of ‘legitimacy’ within the context of learning as social practice, I illustrated and analyzed processes of interactions in ‘learner-centered’ debriefing sessions. Based on the illustration and analysis, the following two points were clarified; 1)‘learner-centered’ debriefing sessions involved a paradox of ‘coerced’ free discussion, in which players were allowed to discuss any topic freely, but not excluding the free discussion itself; 2) facilitators attempted to ‘enroll’ players, and the unequal relations of power between them play crucial roles to achieve ‘learner-centered’ educational practice of simulation and gaming without breaking out the paradox. Finally, I argue that an experiential learning approach pays attention solely to learners’ individual cognitive processes in simulation and gaming, but ignores changing relationships among participants in it, while it is often recognized as the basis of ‘learner-centered’ educational practice.