Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 10
Showing 1-35 articles out of 35 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    1991 Volume 10 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kazuko TSURUMI
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 1-11
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    the theory of modernization, as developed by the American and British social scientists in the 1950's and mid-1960's identifies the U.S., England and other Western European countries as endogenous developers, the model devisers, whereas latecomers like Japan, China and other non-Western countries as exogenous developers, the model borrowers. To this concept, I would like to challenge, by proposing that all the latecomers also are more or less endogenous developers. First, I characterize the general features of the theory of endogenous development, distinct from the theory of modernization. Then I concentrate on two of those features, first, the recreativity of tradition in terms of social and intellectual structures ; and the second, the agents of change in the direction of endogenous development, whom I call "key-persons". Illustrations will be made with reference to Minamata in Japan and agrarian industrization in southern Jiangsu in China. In conclusion, I shall try to consider some relevance of the proto-theory to endogenous development to the system theory.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 11-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yasuo SAKAMOTO
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 12-19
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The essence of the proposal is to point out three general princiles of social system constitution and to affer system theory which regards any actual social system as composed of a particular mix pattern of adapting these princiles. Three patterns of interaction of social agents( 1)exchange, 2)order-obedience, and 3)mutual aid), occupy the core pasition of the approach, and, it is asserted, they nurture corresponding patterns of social agents( 1)individualist, 2)hierarchist, and 3)communalist) at the one hand, and constitute corresponding patterns of social system(for example, 1)market system, 2)planning system and 3)reciprocity system as economic system)and culture(for example, 1)I-type, 2)H-type, and 3)S-type and G-type, of Maruyama's mindscape)at the other. Any particular mix pattern of the principles, it is asserted, gives the social system corresponding particular pattern of its behavior, and from this viewpoint, an interpretation and a perspective and presented as to the enormous trends of the contemporary world (the restructuring of the welfare state, of the former socialist economies and of the international economic relations).
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 20-21
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 22-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kokichi SHOJI
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 23-28
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    World soiety has been drastically restructurized since the Cold War was ended in 1989. The American hegemony has been salient in terms of military control and pressing diplomacy backed up by the United Nations' resolutions especially in and after the Gulf War. The Japanese government has taken no efficient leadership because of the lack of its own world view and political philosophy. To overcome this defect, Japan should develop a series of new world policy based on the reformulated core values for human community-liberty, equality, harmony, and fraternity. Harmony between humankind and nature, having been an organizing principle of Japanese and Asian cultures, should provide a new perspective not only for world peace but for ecological renaissance that should be made a basis of human survival. Our contemporary world has been renewed and developed by three major dialectical processes of capitalist factory system (producing organized workers), imperialist colonial system(yielding national liberation movements)and nuclear armenent system (provoking anti-war peace movements), and now it is facing a new predicament of global environmental disruption. New dialectial thinking can be developed in order to cope with this crisis if we make ingenious use of Asian's traditional way of life which has been inherently pacifist and ecologist. Japan has the Constitution that beautifully fits this new perspective.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 28-30
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Hisayoshi MITSUDA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 31-38
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The purposes of this paper are to describe the emergence of environmental sociology and to clarify its paradigmatic framework to study interactions between environment and society. First, I briefly discuss the historical transition of ecological perspectives and the need of a new ecological paradigm to comprehend the global environmental problems. Second, I criticize the traditional worldview among social scientists and review the paradigmatic shift from anthropocentric paradigm to ecological paradigm, i.e., the distinction of "Human Exemptionalism Paradigm (HEP)" and "New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)" in environmental sociology. Third, the importance of "Environmental Revolution" to achieve the Ecological Society is stressed in the conclusion.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 38-40
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Norio OBATA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 41-47
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    What type of soical system can be imaged for the sustainable development, when the two propositions that are "only one earth "and "so many men, so many minds "are given? Researching some models of conflict, it is that ecvironmental conflict is energy for recreating an old system. This paper tries to establish the framework of a new system in view of an enfunction of environmental conflict.the new system consits of three components as follows ; (1)analysing the differnce of various criterion to classify, (2)integrating contrary opinions, (3)modeling a social experimental project system The most essential point in the system is to hold infomation in common. This paper proposes the general consensus support system which expands option domain by breaking down a trade-off problem into intermediate elements. This system is a communicating aid to combine group interests.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 47-48
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 49-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Noritoku YAMAMOTO
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 50-56
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    We can show how the autonomus decentralized systems adapt to the disturbauces in many ways. (1)Each subsystem may cope individually with the change of an environment by means of adjustment, for example, by stocks, rate of operation work and capital investment. (2)A subsystem links loosely with others using common database and individual information system. (3)Some subsystems may link with the elements of the outer system. There is a concept common to these means, i.e., a "redundancy" of the system. But, it should be noted that in an autonoumous decentralized system there may be adaptable means to the change of environment, it does not mean that there is always a practical system control as a whole. Then, what is a practical control of the system with stochastic environment? We know the successful examples of the stochastic control methods applied in the technological fields. When we consider the viability of the socio-economic system, however, we must be careful of the use of these methods. So, a practical method, besed on the simulation in the stage of a planning is proposed. Its aim is to predict the qualitative changes of the ingenous variables caused by the disturbances to each large-scale and complex subsystem. By this method, each subsystem is represented by the system of piecewise-linear equations, which is workable and easy to handle for the prediction of the behavior of the subsystems.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 56-57
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 58-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Hiroshi YODA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 59-63
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Since mid-seventies, a number of the Diet members, especialy LDP (Liberal Democratic Party) Diet members, recruited from 'political families' has gradually increased. On the 39th General Election in 1990, LDP won 288 seats in the Diet, and a nember of LDP Diet nembers who are recruited from political families is 121. Most candidates seeking for a seat in the Diet have a privately owned organization(so called 'Kouenkai')to make it to collect votes in order to get elected. Leaders of this organization and candidate oneself cooperatively from the interest community in which their interest would be expected to be maintained and increased by a politicain executing his / her political influence. Thrire desire is that the interest community is inherited by the legitimate inheritor who should be a member of political family, and they truely fear disappearing its interest community as a result of nobody inheriting its organization. This is the reason of the increasing number of Diet members from political families. This is the crisis of Status Democracy in the political field in Japan which has been one of principles in modern society.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 64-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 65-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yuzo SHINDO
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 66-71
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Medial systems in advanced societies are said to be in time of change. Considerable differences do exist among them, but common factors such as change in proportion of disease, emergence of aging society, develoment of medical science and technology, increasing interest in health, and rising medical cost give them rather similar environment to adapt. In this paper, instead of overviewing general trends, structural constellation of physician's changing status will be depicted to illustrate the overall transformation of medical system. This strategic focus is chosen by the fact that the transformation could nowhere more vividly visualized in the status change of central figures of medical world. Bearing this purpose in mine, (1)after examining methodological problems, recent American studies about the decline in physician's status, here classified as "deprofessionalization" and "proletarianization" theses are to be examined respectively, then (2)systematically integrating their findings, a structural diagram named "Challenge to autonomy - its structural configuration" will be presented, and changing aspects of relationships physicians have had with surrounding social groups will be explicated to some detail, and (3)a substantial question to be answered and methodological procedures to be needed will briefly be referred.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 71-72
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 73-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Mikio FURUKAWA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 74-79
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    'Market socialism', which has been attempted in the reform process of Eastern Europe up to 1989, came to be considered the tentative model combining macro-economic management, social policy and socialist values, while abandoning Marxist socialism. From this process re-emerged the deep insight of Mises and Hayek in the 'socialist economic calculating debate'. But the author does not accept Hayek' 'market order=spontaneous order' qualified as the total social order in the following respects : his neglect of the liberty politically organized ; his deficient understanding about mixture of market principles, intimate communal relations and public principles ; and his nonchalance towards the possibility of depletion of 'moral capital'. Full utilization of market mechanism which 'market socialism' assumes, however, inevitably brings about re-examination of the relation between market itself and its effects molding society and individuals. In this respect D.Miller's latest work is worth reviewing. Competitive market enables distributive justice in terms of deserts, only on the condition that there exist communal bond based on citizenship. Realization of economic democracy, one of the main claim of 'market socialism' vision to transfrom the capitalist system, has great significance both as a best 'learning' opportunity and as re-distribution of the power in industry.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 79-80
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Sakae OKUDA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 81-86
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    It is said that we are entering into a post-industrial or information society. Recently it is discussed, however, by several authors that even in an information society we can not neglect a major role of the manufacturing industry. In this paper, it is discussed that an information society is a necessary outgrowth originating from an industrial society which has grown up to possess productivity of a global scale. It is well known that this productivity of a global scale gives rise to many troubles, especially environmental problems. There exists a partial parallelism between nuclear weapons and productivity of a global scale. Schematically, it could be presented as follows : Productivity ……………… Nuclear weapons uncontrolled production nuclear winter Carbon Dioxide ……………… Dust and smoke Greenhouse effect ……………… Nuclear winter. An aspect of special interest of this parallelism is that in both cases computer simulation plays a central role. In other words, in both cases, the reformation of socio-economical system is induced by information itself.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 86-87
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 88-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Mitsushige NITTA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 89-95
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    It is the purpose of this essay to analyze the relation between dynamic oder that concerns knowledge allocatiion in the economic process on the assumption of the contemporary market economy and the role of institutions and policies. Ttraditionaly in the most of economic literatures, morket oder that concerns resource allocation is regarded as main economic system. However, our dynamic oder concerns innovative activity that contains innovation and diffusion of a new technologies. Our dynamic oder is drived by the differential probabilities between firms that are determined by technological paradigms and technological asymmetries. Innovative activities are leaded by the firms recognizeing heigh probabilities, another firms in same sector imitate that innovation, and finaly cruster of the new technologies is formed. In the working of the dynamic process, many institutions concern the performance of dynamic oder. For instance, bridging institution plays assimilating flow knowledge to the knowledge bases of firmes, and forms the bases of differential probabilities. Patenting institution, employment institution and the institutions concerning focussing mechanism are another importance institutions.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 95-96
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Tomitaro SUEISHI
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 97-
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 97-98
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 99-101
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 101-103
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 103-105
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 10 Pages 105-118
    Published: October 25, 1991
    Released: July 28, 2017
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