Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 26
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    2005 Volume 26 Pages Toc1-
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Naonori TSUDA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 1-14
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 15-
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 16-24
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 24-30
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 30-35
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 35-38
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Eiji KAWANO
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 39-51
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In this article, we discuss on 1) the Diagnosis of the time in the age of Risk society, 2) the problem of social exclusion and 3) the possibility of the economy of social solidarity. In this epoch, Risk is prevalent in all fields and it traverses the frontiers of institutions that developed in the first modernity. This sort of new insecurity in the second modernity is the source of the social exclusion, not of the poverty in the industrial society. The social exclusion is not simply the deficit of the distribution, but also the absence of the sociability. And it is the problem of the relation of the individual and the social totality. Finally, we examine the project and theory of the economy of social solidarity that attempt at the integration of the excluded peoples in the social totality and at the realization of the social mix of the three axes of the economy ', market, redistribution and the reciprocity. This multiple and alternative movement is the local one, but it also prevalent in the global dimension, particularly in Europe and Latin America.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 53-
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 54-58
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 58-63
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 63-67
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 67-73
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kaname IIO
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 75-79
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    When we consider risk control, we should distinguish between recoverable damage and unrecoverable damage. In the case of risk control managing recoverable damage, we use the learning control with the performance criterion which consists in balance between the statistically average loss and the control costs. In the case of risk control managing unrecoverable damage, we should use the minimax rule-the rule adopting the means which can minimize the forecasted maximum loss. From these analyses, we are able to get better viewpoints on the risk control systems.
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  • Seiji TSUGAWA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 81-87
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    As progresses of electronic government systems such as the resident register network system, the electronic application and the others in local governments, electronic risks such as Unauthorized Computer Access, Computer Viruses, Denial of Service Attack and Leakage of the Personal Data is increasing against the local governments, too. Under this situation, local governments must carry out the assessments of assets, threats and risks to maintain the information security levels beyond baseline levels. This is because the useful techniques and examples of risk analysis indispensable to the information security risk management do not exist. Therefore, they make their security policy from the ready-made model, and do not execute the information security audit so much. So in Hyogo Prefectural Government, we constructed the risk management method for guaranteeing safety by the technique consisting mainly of a log analysis and a pseudo attack based on the methods of ISO/IEC 17799 and applied it for three years. As a result, by staff in Hyogo Prefectural Government an effective risk management cycle was able to be constructed in a short term, and the effectiveness of these methods was proved.
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  • Yun WU, Eisuke HAYASHI
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 89-96
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    "The business of Akita regional IX (Internet eXchange) project" is consistent in building regional communication infrastructure for Akita prefecture. In this project, Akita IX was built and continues entrusting to the private venture enterprise since August 2002. However, Akita IX had several big troubles that caused out of services for Internet connection in long time after operational. Six of eighth regional ISPs, (Internet Service Provider) that joined Akita IX, made a joint announcement for breakaway from Akita IX in April 2004. This paper is based on our investigation of "The business of Akita regional IX project". We discuss about 1) regional IT policy of Akita, 2) administration of regional IT infrastructure "Akita regional IX" and the importance of risk management, 3) evidence about the risks of technology and person in regional IT infrastructure, from a viewpoint of evaluation. And we point out an importance of risk management in regional IT infrastructure system. In addition, consider the risk management for promoting regional IT.
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  • Hideyuki Tanaka, Kanta Matsuura
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 97-101
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The authors aim to verify the relation between vulnerability and information security investment. This relation is empirically analyzed using data on e-local governments in Japan. The results suggest that the decisions an economic entity makes concerning information security investment depend on vulnerability. Our research lends empirical support to prior economic research.
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  • Tatsuomi FUKUSHIMA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 103-110
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Modern systems need new concept of contingency plan for crisis management. Characteristic of the system in complex society is having expansion of scale, high quality, complexity and dispersion. Relationship of each systems complicates the problem. The partial problem spread to total system crisis and complex damages take place in disasters like as earthquake near by cities. The attack to the core of function in cities by terrorism,etc. affects a major impact on political and economic system. Contingency may influence the frame of the structure in the world. So political system should establish contingency plan against outbreak of disaster.
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  • Yumiko NARA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 111-117
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This study aims to examine the status quo of risk perception and risk coping of citizen, as well as the relationship between risk perception and risk coping with the data of questionnaire survey. Nine risks which would be happened in everyday life were presented ', strong earthquake, traffic accident, plunge in stock price or interest rate, dioxin, cancer, consumer damage on the Internet, defamation on the Internet, Internet stalking, and computer virus. As the results, it was found that citizens with low self-help consciousness and low information-taking tendency tend to feel the unknown and the dread of risk. This result has brought new objects, i.e. the possibility and necessity of the change of people's consciousness and attitude should be considered.
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  • Takeaki KOMATSU
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 119-126
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    I will analyze in this paper the problem of so-called "Altlasten" in the new federal states (the Land of Saxony, Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-West Pomeranian, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia)through the concept of risk-transformation, which has been used in the Niklas Luhmann's social system theory. According to Luhmann, various types of "technological-ecological risks" are transformed into the specific political risks by the political system as one of the function systems of modem society. The political system has to assume the "technological-ecological risks" with regard to the results produced by political-administrative decisions. Luhmann applied this concept only to the (political) function system, but I think that this concept can be used also for the organizational types of social systems. That is, "technological - ecological risks" will be transformed into the risks for each organization, therefore each organization makes a different response to that risks. This concept "risk transformation" implies the similar meanings to the Ulrich Beck's concept of "social rationality", but I think that the former can formulate the "system reference (Systemreferenz)" more accurately than the latter. In 1992, the negotiation system was built by the Treuhandanstalt (THA) , the Land of Saxony, the Federal Government, and the firms in question in order to solve the problem of Altlasten (old improperly disposed of harmful waste). In this negotiation system, THA, which was founded primarily in order to facilitate the privatization of new federal states, though, acted against this purpose. Because it was important for THA to manage the limitary funds as savingly as possible. That is to say, the "technological-ecological risks" of Altlasten was transformed by the THA into the risks of ruing its motto "saving". THA had responded to this new transformed risks rather than to the "technological-ecological risks" of Altlasten directly. The social system theory will make a large contribution toward fertilizing the risk research by refining this concept"risk-transformation".
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  • Yuhsuke KOYAMA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 127-134
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper investigates the fruitfulness of the evolutionary economics as the alternative research paradigm for the neoclassical economics. The main theoretical tools for neoclassical economics are the mathematical model and the econometrics, on the other hand, those of evolutionary economics are the agent based modeling and the empirical survey. Although both economics have the solid theoretical hard - cores, their cores are quite different, especially in the linkage among the hard-core and the more complicated and applied research areas. To point out the advantage of the evolutionary economics, we should not assert the theoretical reality but the usefulness as the theoretical tool because both economics employ the as-if scheme to explain the behavior of the economic agents.
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  • Masa-atsu DOI
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 135-142
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to establish the concept of Social Innavation Cluster which is composed of socially responsible businesses, nonprofits, universities, network organizations and foundations in order to creat new social and environmental value. Social Innovation Cluster in Bay Area has created unique social business models and they has had a major effect on social enterprise movement in the world. Especially this paper focuses on Social Venture Network. SVN is a menbership organization composed of socially progressive entrepreneurs, with a sprinkling of nonprofit participants, organized to promote the idea that business can and should be a vehicle for social change. SVN has contributed to the formation of Social Innovation Cluster in Bay Area.The formation of Social Innovation Cluster leads to the creation of new social and environmental standards or orders in the market society.
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  • Sakae OKUDA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 143-149
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Since the progressive view of history has appeared, contrary to it, the pessimistic one also appeared. The progressive view is based on the material wealth, and, as for the material wealth, it is natural to think about the limitation of resources. In this article, we analyzed the communications about exhaustion of resources and long-range technological forecasts. It seems to be a problem of the ideology what kind of attitude we take for the exhaustion of resources: optimistic or pessimistic one. However, if we thought a role of uncertainty-communications as reduction of uncertainty, optimism should never be welcomed for introducing new uncertainty of technological development. On the other hand, pessimistic one is always welcomed, though the prediction is always betrayed. At first sight, it is plausible to argue that the technological development only postpones time limit of resource problems. However, if time limit is postponed for 50 years, new resources might be developed in the meantime by new technology and the problems could be solved naturally. A change of a lifestyle as the solution that the pessimists advocate has nature to evade technological uncertainty. On the other hand, they confine arguments in the known range of technology. Though it seems radical to advocate a solution through a change of lifestyle, in fact, it is the proposal of extremely conservatives.
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  • Minoru GOTO
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 151-162
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Kyoto Protocol was issued on february 16th, 2005. The purpose of this paper is to consider the meaning of global environmental politics. The meaning is recognized as formation of antagonism. From view point of Luhmann's concepts of risk and immunization, we will classify the issues of global environmental conferences. First, we review the politicization process of global environmental issue and examine the Kyoto Protocol.COP3 reconfirmed the North-South responsabilities. Second, we analize the Johannesburg Summit (WSSD) in comparison to the Rio Summit. WSSD adressed the plan of implementation containing targets and timetable to improve the poverty and condition of environment. From view point of risk, WSSD concerns only calcurable risk and immunization without structural reformation, since the summit did not adopt the Precautionary Principle and preserved the WTO regime. Third,we consider the attempt of World Social Forum (WSF).WSF demonstrates the path to sustainable development and social economic justice, which were made slight of in WSSD. To be sure, WSF questions the divide between risk winner and risk loser. Although the propositions of WSF are introduced into functional system as programme arrangement, the participants of WSF suggest above the functional management, seeking the possibily of Another World against the world of neoliberal globalization. Finally, we suggest that possibilty of Another World relies on impossibility of risk imputation.
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  • Ritsuko KUZE
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 163-176
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the welfare state handles the risks by using the frame of "Observation" and of "Decision maker/Affected" of Luhmann through the comparison with the insurance company. The welfare state is discussed that the influence of the insurance technology was strong at the beginnings. And the same time, there are the discussions about the limit of the risk - approach with the insurance technology in the industrial society and the welfare state because of present "New risk." In an insurance risk approach of the welfare state and the insurance company, there are the following common features. They prepare large amount of money collected from the wide range for the case, which the citizens of the state or the insured persons will fall into the specific accident in the future. However, there are some points of difference between the welfare state and insurance company in how to use the insurance technology. When we look at those points that who is observing the risk and who is the decision maker or the affected of the risk, it become apparent that the welfare state has compelling power, and, has a change possibility of the decision making based on this power. The insurance company or the insured persons has no outstanding ability like this because of the symmetric relationship between them. In addition, the principle of the charge and the distribution in the welfare state is not an economic rationality but "need" of insurance. When the welfare state uses the collected money for the risks, it is not only one-to-one correspondence of a specific resource with a specific risk. The welfare state put individual premiums and/or general tax in various related risks. The predictability by an insurance calculation declines in the situation of a modern risk. The welfare state can change the decision making to fit this situation, however, it is necessary to seek the approval by citizens in each time. The load of the explanation about changing increases and it is not necessarily to be approved. In addition, because it is possible to change it, the decision makings have possibility of being distrusted by the citizens. And we will have to think about not only problems of the risk handling in the welfare state but also advantages of the compelling power and of the possibility of decision changing et al.
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  • Tatsuomi FUKUSHIMA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 177-189
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This study mentions that network system is applicable to new functional political system from viewpoint of cognitive science and complex system. Difference between political network system and internet (IT) is to carry out plans to acquire new semantic information or not. Semantic change in a information is given in a place (Ba) and information has fix and flexible factors. So each place (Ba) acts to add new meaning to flexible factor of information and space of problem is proposed to integrate place (Ba) of each agent. Adding information, there is some possibility that structure of problem space or political events change. A information may produce another information and transformation of information in store. In internet, information accumulates or rounds in circuit, but in political network, information needs to acquire to new meaning of information. This cascade of information is able to make innovation in political process.
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  • Takashi SUMIDA
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 26 Pages 191-200
    Published: November 12, 2005
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This study proposes what consumption means in the matured society of Japan. In the matured society of Japan, Japanese consumers have been physically satisfied their needs with products. On the other hand, they find it hard to satisfy the mental empty with them. Under the situation, the meaning of consumption has changed and varied in the matured society. And consumers consume not only the value of utility with products but also the process in consumption. Consumption of the something invisible takes place through the semiotical consumption. The development of information technology, the so-called Internet, emerges and consumers form Brand Community in order to make their consumption affluent. Finally, Japanese consumers seem they have reached the new meaning of consumption in the 21st century through Brand Community. It is the consumption of the process that Brand Community creates relationships between consumers and the brad and between consumers. The consumer behavior analysis adds seeking for the something next to consumer needs as well as seeking for consumer needs to its aim.
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