Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 28
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    2007 Volume 28 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 1-8
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Shingo TAKAHASHI
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 9-15
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes Agent-based Organizational Cybernetics (AOC), which combines organizational cybernetic framework and computational organization theoretic approach, especially agent-based computational learning model. Organizational cybernetics provides a basic framework in which every organization is comprehensively described to be composed of 4 functional layers: process, coordination, adaptation and self-organization. In organizational cybernetics the difference between the overall purpose of an organization and each function of it plays an essential role especially to provide diagnosis for the organization of keeping viable. In this usage of the organizational cybernetic framework no micro-macro problem between learning of each member and that of the whole system can be seen. On the other hand, computational organization theoretic approach focuses on agents' task resolutions and bottom-up description of organizational activities. Organizational learning process described in computational organization theory mainly consists of error correcting activities by each agent and organization itself based on the agents' decision rules. Computational organization theory describes explicitly models to define detail dynamics on learning in process levels by agents. It is, however, not straightforward to describe double-loop learning as sharing internal models among agents. Though organizational cybernetic approach and computational organization theoretic one have considerably different aspects: on micro-level and on macro-level, we can combine them and build newly emergent model. Our proposed model describes the two loops of organizational learning by representing both processes of learning of internal models and resolving tasks by agents. The model can describe essentially different levels of individual learning and organizational one so as to distinguish effectively the two loops of organizational learning.
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  • Kotaro OHORI, Shingo TAKAHASHI
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 17-24
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The primary purpose of this paper is to propose a new framework for supporting market design, and to analyze standardization problems. The main features of the framework are as follows: 1) economic units such as firms or consumers are regarded as autonomous agents, 2) essential interactions among these agents in a market are considered, 3) consumers' preferences and firms' technologies coevolute in choices of products. We call this CAMCaT (Coevolutionary Agent-based Model for Consumers and Technologies) framework. The main target problems of this paper are standardization in market design. In recent years, a technological progress and a globalization have been intensifying competitions between standards in many markets. In these competitions, firms tend to pursuit short-term profits acquisition, and winners can get more profits than losers. Moreover a firm strains on its own standard in the competitions. As a result, many stakeholders suffer various types of inconvenience from these competitions based on a market mechanism. Therefore some problems about the standardization are noticed in many markets. It is a difficult problem how we should specify a standard. Then we would like to provide a new approach unlike conventional studies of a market structure and market dynamics. This paper builds an agent-based model using CAMCaT framework to examine some essential problems about the standardization and conducts a simulation on some scenarios that show some propositions of the standardization to verify the effectiveness and validity of the model. The result shows that this model has a high potential to support market design process.
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  • Shinichiro MADO
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 25-32
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    There are some essential differences between the evolution of life and the evolution of society. So the Genetic Algorithms (GA) are not sufficient for the recognition of the generation and the evolution of the market, like other economic systems. There is a modeling method, called the intelligent social evolution mechanisms (ISEM), which is more suitable for describing the evolution of the society than GA. The ISEM is a mechanism of social evolution. The ISEM evolves a type of program called Non Neumann Type Program (NNTP) using human intelligence. In the case of GA, the NNTP is called the chromosome or genome. Self programming of the NNTP leads to the evolution of society. The evolution game is a sort of the multi-agent simulation. In the case of the evolution game, the players are the agents and the set of strategies is a sort of NNTP. An aspect of game in the evolution game is composed of the set of strategies of the players and the payoff matrix. The set of strategies of the players is obviously a sort of NNTP, but the aspect of the payoff matrix should be also a sort of NNTP. We can define another subset of NNTP which represents the payoff matrix. The payoff matrix is a sort of social environment. Therefore we can represent the social environment by a set of NNTP of the agents. There can be a subset which is contained in the NNTP of all agents, and we can call such NNTP-"culture". We can recognize the market as a sort of NNTP. We can also recognize the generation and evolution of the market as an evolution of the economic system. The processes of the evolution of the institution are self programming processes of the cultural NNTP. And the processes should contain (1) the problem recognition and the solution of the problem, (2) the generation of a new subset of NNTP of the agenda for the new institution as the solution of the problem, and (3) the social selection of the new NNTP. These processes are then repeated. The change of the market can be understood as an evolution of the institution of the market. And it could also be understood as an evolution of the NNTP of the market by the processes of the ISEM.
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  • Keima UENO, Hideyuki TANAKA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 33-39
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    This paper aims to verify the impact of information security (IS) investment on firm value. More specifically, we focus on the number of IS countermeasures, and conduct empirical analyses based on Japanese quantitative statistical data. Today, IS investment has been a vital component of business activity. Extant studies have addressed the matter of IS investment from various angles. For example, studies have explored the cost of IS breaches, the relationship between IS investment and vulnerability of information systems, the relationship between IS investment and firm value. However, to the best of our knowledge, issues about the relationship between IS investment and firm value have not been entirely clarified so far; therefore, further studies are now needed. Thorough this study, we obtained two main items of empirical evidence: The number of IS countermeasures have a significant positive association with the firm value as measured by Tobin's q; stock markets evaluate a firm's IS countermeasure as intangible asset rather than the firm's experience of IS trouble. These results not only contribute to the frontiers of the academic domain but also support recent government policies which address the issues of IS.
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  • Yun WU
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 41-49
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    At first, this paper reviews that the regional information promotion and the market principles reforms were advanced in the same period of Japanese social economic system after 1980's. It is evident that the regional information promotion related closely with the market principle reform thus far. In addition, it pays attention in the regional information promotion for education and medical. And points out that the information promotion based on a market principle through the digital divides and problem between regions to be seen in the present conditions is insufficient. Finally, it insists that we should develop as a social common capital, when we promote the regional information promotion which is related to the life of the region's resident.
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  • Koji KANAGAWA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 51-58
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    New Labour's agenda to tackle the social exclusion and focusing on the active citizenship, set up variety of partnership scheme between public sector and voluntary & community sector (VCS). This means the transformation of governance model from the Conservative Party Era. This paper shows the Compact which is the agreement between the public sector and VCS, and Local Strategic Partnership (LSP) as the strategic level of partnership scheme in each local area. Local Compacts have been produced almost all the area in England. Idea of the Compact is rather idealistic but actually it has a lot of problem in its effectiveness and implementation especially in funding relations. For this reason new scheme is under consideration to advance the partnership agenda forward. LSP is a partnership of partnerships in the local area which is introduced to combine the individual partnerships and to decrease transaction and monitoring costs of partnership governance. Generally speaking, LSP has two roles. One is the core self governing function in the area and the other is service or policy delivery role which has been set by the central government. For this reason, LSP has to make difficult choice between national and local priority. It is said that there is a tendency of regulatory states or too much steering role of central government especially in the first Blair Administration. But this governance model gradually changing towards two ways. One is steering weight is moving from central government to local governments and the other way is transformation from government control to self-governing of partnership organization including VCS. We could say that governing model seems reconstructing in England recently.
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  • Takashi IBA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 59-67
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In this paper, we would like to explain the mechanism of creative collaboration and "pattern language", based on the social system theory proposed by Niklas Luhmann. Creative collaboration is focused on as the source of innovation in the several areas today, however it is not enough to understand the essential mechanism. Collaboration is a social activity when more than one person cooperates to aim for a goal that cannot be reached alone. In a team or an organization that does an effective collaboration, not only do they have an effective division of work, but also a process of ideas increasing is so massive that no one can tell who came up with the idea. These are a characteristic and what collaboration can lead us to. In this paper, we propose the concept of "creative thinking", "creative action", and "creative communication", applying and extending the social system theory, and explain the creative collaboration as the nexus of creative communication. Creative thinking means the creation by imagining or thinking something in his/her brain. Creative action means the creation by drawing or building something with his/her body. Creative communication means the creation by communicating with some others. According to social system theory, communication is the element of social system and "communication" is defined as the synthesis of three selections: "information", "utterance", and "understanding". In this framework, communication can be creative, because the communication is just selection process. We, in this paper, focus on "pattern language" as the support method for creative collaboration. Pattern language is the method proposed by Christopher Alexander in architecture. In the pattern language, the tacit knowledge of creation is summarized into a pattern, which composed of three parts: "situation", "problems", "solution". Pattern language is worked as the media for thinking and communication. According to the social system theory, "language" is a media of coupling between consciousness and communication. We explore the possibility to apply the method of pattern language into new areas.
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  • Michiru KUNITOMO, Takashi IBA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 69-77
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In this paper, we analyze the social function of the recovery process from hazards of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake occurred at Jan. 17, 1995, based on "Social System Theory" proposed by Niklas Luhmann. What we discuss is the types of communication which were generated at the affected area in the recovery process and the way people join in these communications. And we propose a new standpoint that the recovery process from disaster has two types of social systems (communication systems): One is a "Disaster Reduction as a Social System" and another is a "Recovery from Hardship as a Social System". The disaster-reduction system is generated by the nexus of communication about disaster prevention and reduction. This type of communication is based on "anxieties". These anxious feelings come from a flood of information about the catastrophe provided by a press. When people witness a fearful image about the catastrophe through a mass media, they think if this catastrophic accident happens to us. Then the social anxiety has risen up. On the other hand, the recovery system is generated by the nexus of communication about past experiences of the disaster. This type of communication is based on "sympathies". These sympathetic feelings are born of sharing fear and sad experiences about the disaster. The victims of the disaster and participants share loss experiences, hardship and heartaches. This sharing is a source that helps the communication about the past experiences about the disaster. We take some examples of the communication media that helps communication to chain in the recovery system in the recovery process of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake: a mourning event named " 1.17 Meetings for remembering the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake", a song named "Song Brings Happiness" which was written on the morrow of the earthquakes, and some earthquake disaster memorial monuments. These media help the nexus of communication in the recovering system and the nexus of consciousness about the recovery from the catastrophe in the psychic system.
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  • Saburo AKAHORI
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 79-84
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In this article, we will examine sociological implication of the "Third Way", which is proposed and led by a British sociologist Anthony Giddens. His argument about the Third Way is based on his opinion that we have to cope with risks and uncertainties of modern society, and on his sociological theory, especially on what he calls "institutional reflexivity", which means knowledge about society influence social institution reflexively, and which can be interpreted as a feedback loop of social system (or, societal system). In such a point of view, it is important what consists of societal system and what controls the system. According to Niklas Luhmann's social systems theory, the component of social systems is communication, and modern society is described as a comprehensive communication system (that is, societal system). From this perspective, control of modern society can be understood not as "social control" in a sociological sense, but as self-control or self-regulation of modern society.
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  • Yoshinori ISOMICHI
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 85-90
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The author examined the progressivity of income tax. The number of parameters of the tax-system should be fewer. In this paper he uses only three parameters. r(x_i)=a-b/(x_i+c) the income-tax rate for x_i which is income of person i. They are determined uniquely by 1) the minimum income for taxation, 2) the ultimate taxation rate and 3) the total amount of the income tax.
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  • Toshihiro MIZUHARA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 91-99
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to verify the validity of the conception of the classical and contemporary theories of consumption society that the characteristic values in consumer society such as hedonism prescribe to consumers, what their consumption is, that is to say, consumption as differentiation. First of all, the author clarifies the conception by investigating the past theories of consumption society. Next, using the social survey data, he examines the correlation of "consumerist value" with "differential consumer attitude," and the positive effect of the former on the latter. In the end, he concludes that both the correlation and the effect are partial, therefore so is the validity of conception.
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  • Sakae OKUDA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 101-107
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In the Industrial Revolution steam engines reduced the value of physical labor. The workers only of the picks and the shovels were not able to live on wages that could be competed with the steam engines. The same thing can be said about the brain in the information revolution. The computer will reduce the value of brain labor. As a result, the man/woman on the street will have nothing worth to sell. We are forced to establish a society that esteems human value with buying and selling. In this paper we discuss what kind of society it is. First we consider so-called technological unemployment due to our invention of machines to save labor. Under such technological progress the increase of production is indispensable to maintain employment. But this choice is not sustainable due to the finiteness of the earth. Next we discuss an essential role of buying, selling and competition. We consider also framework of society the accumulation of wealth is no longer of high social importance. However, it will need long time so that such a society comes out, though we can find signs. Lastly we consider the signs a little more in detail. The most remarkable sign is the shift from the exchange economy to the gift culture. We discuss the labor that is valueless or transcends the price. If the market judged our labor valueless, we would rather present it to the society than to the market. It is suitable for the presentation to reward by the presentation. We need some mechanism of this sort to establish society that esteems human values with buying and selling.
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  • Mikio FURUKAWA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 109-113
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Notions of justice form clustered group ideas. In the center of this clustered group of ideas we could detect the notion of deserts which could be categorized into three types. Discourse and images about society in particular market versus justice would affect the implications upon economic and social policies. Rawls suggests the importance of minimum social basic goods and presuppose the moral agents. Economic inequality should be put under certain degree if we draw the conclusions from the research about impact of inequality upon social capital and human relations.
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  • Masayuki YOSHIDA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 115-128
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    What role does entrepreneurship bear in the economic society? In this paper, considering the argument of the entreprneurial competition in Schumpeter and Kirzner, we inquire the feature of the entrepreneurial competition and the role of entrepreneurship in this process. Because the neoclassical theory of market competition excludes the dynamics of entrepreneurship, we cannot argue these subjects. We need the alternative framework that explains the dynamics of economic society and the roles borne by entrepreneurship in this dynamics. According to Schumpeter, the dynamics of captitalism means the complex phenomenon of economic and social changes. And the engine of dynamics is the entrepreneurial activity. Entrepreneurial activities cause the economic development that involves qualitative change of economic life. Without entrepreneurial activities, we cannot enjoy the fruits of capitalism. For example, the new products like air-plains, refrigerators, TV, and the new way of life that bring these new products and services. In the capitalism, only the entrepreneur can bear the role of innovator under the social resistance to innovation. But once firms realize that they are subject to the latent threat of entrepreneurship, these entreprneurial activities make many firms to aquire the ability to change their routines in order to execute innovation by themselves. We define this process as the process of the institutionalization of entrepreneurship. According to Kirzner, the dynamics of captitalism means the market process driven by entrepreneurship. Similarily to Schumpeter, the engine of dynamics is the entrepreneurial activity. But the field Kirzner focuses on is the market knowledge problem. This problem means how market participants make use of their required knowledge and information. We cannot get this kind of knowledge and information by bearing transaction cost. He points out only the entrepreneur can solve this problem. Entrepreneurial activity consists of three parts. Discovering the opportunity of mutual profit in a market, accessing the economic resources and accessing the consumer's demand. In the process of entrepreneurial activities, market participants learn to know what knowledge and information they are required. Without entrepreneurial alertness, market doesn't work. Kirzner's theory of entrepreneurship shows the process of the culutivation of market function. We define his theory of entrepreneurship as the institutionalized entrepreneurship in the market economy. The dynamics of capitalism is not the continuity but the discontinutity process. Both theory of the entrepreneurship shows that the firms and markets need the leap by entrepreneurship and this is the role that entrepeneurship can bear.
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  • Naoki OKADA
    Type: Article
    2007 Volume 28 Pages 129-142
    Published: October 13, 2007
    Released: July 28, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Purpose of this paper is to explore internal relation between social theory of Karl Marx and General system theory. Some researchers including Piaget, Wallerstein, Okishio have indicated affinity of them, but no one really argued joining of Marx and system theory. But as Althusser pointed out, Marx made a 'immeasurable theory revolution' by discovering 'structural causality' and 'epistemological criticism'. These features are in parallel with general system theory. Generally speaking, 'system' is defined as 'constructional whole of relations between elements'. Marx wrote 'society was not composed of individuals, but it was summation of relations of individuals'. And today it is generally accepted argument that Marx's theory was relationism. However, we have to investigate the concept of 'relation' of Marx. In 'Preface of the Critique of Political Economy', he argued that the production-consumption relation was internal self-vanishing process. He virtually showed the world view as incessantly changing energy flow. Marx in 'Grundrisse' believed that society (and capital) is reproductive process of social individuals which produces society (and capital) itself. Social system theory of Marx is very similar to autopoiesis theory of Maturana and Varela. They thought autonomic life as a autopoietic system, which means a system whose components reproduce network of productive relation which produces components. This view of life is consonant of that of Marx, who thought individual as a self-reproductive life. And we can closely parallelize 'autopoiesis' of Maturana and 'society' of Marx. Firstly, productive relations of autopoietic system are transient chemical processes. Social relations in Marx's theory are productive self-vanishing processes. The affinity of them is tangible. Secondly, the definition of society (and capital) by Marx exactly fits into the definition of autopoietic system. A poor worker of a capitalist society reproduces the network of productive relationship which produces the worker and his poverty. Finally, we compare the Marx's theory as an autopoietic system and social system theory of Niklas Luhmann. Components of our social system theory are persons, while that of Luhmann's one are communications. Luhmann claims that components of a system must be of the same kind, and he just negates an existence of man-machine system and that of ecosystem. They are essencial aspect of the social system theory of Karl Marx, that implies openness of his theory to other scientific fields.
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