Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 3
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    1985 Volume 3 Pages Toc1-
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Junichiro ITANI
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 1-15
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Besides sexual interactions and mother-offspring interactions, the social coexistence of individuals is based on two principles. The inequality principle urges an individual to behave in accordance with its dominant/subordinate relationship with others, while the equality principle works as if there were no dominant/subordinate inequality between individuals. Prevalence of either principle not only depends on the situational structure of the given event, but also on the phylogeny of the given species. By reviewing the dominance systems based on the inequality principle among Japanese macaques, I will probe into possible bases of social interactions based on the equality principle, and then trace the breakdown of the inequality principle and rise of the equality principle in the societies of the genus Pan, i.e., chimpanzees and pygmy chimpanzees.
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  • Tohru MORIOKA
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 16-24
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In the environmental planning process, individual, unconsolidated and disaggregated information has so significant role of both representing specific condition in the real world and assisting anyone in interpreting peculiar meaning in any plan, as formal information collected through established adiministrative survey, social monitoring and public hearing. The informal information, which is produced in formal/informal sectors and delivered to receptors by means of formal/informal activities in three systems of natural environment, built-up environment and social environment, makes a contribution to stabilizing human-environment system and sometimes is judged to be an incentive to an innovation of the system. Keeping a record of environmental household account and making an entry in an environmental carte are proposed as new tools of indentifying informal information. A case study in a rural village shows that these techniques have the capabilities of aiding advocate planners to understand informal information about environmental resources, environmental behavior and environmental consciousness, and besides supporting residents to make decision on sound community development toward a revitalized local society in well-conserved environment.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 23-
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Ichiro TSUDA
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 25-31
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    For understanding the function at the higher level of the brain a hermeneutic process is introduced. In the relation of this process, the paper investigates a possibility that a chaotic dynamical system is engaged as a cognitive gadget which is working at the symbol level of the brain activity.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 30-31
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Mitsuo SUZUKI, Akira OKADA
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 32-36
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Information plays an important role in social and economic situations where decision makers with different interests are interdependent. From a game theoretic point of view, we investigate the problems of information such as how information affects the behavior of each decision maker, whether information is profiable for decision makers or not, and what the value of information is. The paper consists of the following sections : (1) Introduction, (2) The form of a game and its solution concept, (3) The information structures and the equilibrium points, (4) The value of information, (5) Concluding remarks. In Section 2, we present the extensive form of a game and define the concept of a (Nash) equilibrium point. In Section 3, developing the well-known Kuhn's theorem, we show that in the class of games with perfect recall a game is determinate, i.e., has at least one equilibrium point in pure strategies if and only if it has perfect information. In Section 4, the basic result on the value of information is stated, which says that private information is always profitable for a player in zero-sum two-person games. We also provide an example of a non-zero-sum two-person game in which the value of private information is negative.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 36-37
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 38-
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Harutoshi FUNABASHI
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 39-43
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    There are many regional conflicts caused by public projects today, in which residents suffer from disadvantages and struggle against the government and public corporations. What sort of defects in decision making process make social consensus difficult and sometimes impossible? I want to persue this problem using case studies of conflicts caused by Shinkansen and a sociological perspective which stresses the dual character of social system: the administration system and the domination system. The governmental machine which decides and carries out these big projects consists of four kinds of actors on different levels. From the top level to the bottom, they are renked as follows : the leaders of the Government party, technocrats in the Ministry of Transportaion and of Japan National Railways, technostructures on the middle level of J.N.R. and employees on the low level of J.N.R.. At the first stage of planning, the necessity of equalizing benefits among residents and of compensating for their sufferings is ignored by the leaders of the Government party and technocrats. Resident mouvements protest against the governmental machine, but they can negotiate only with the middle level technostructure at the stage too late. In order to improve big projects, it is necessary to criticize them at the early stage of decision making. Or else, the rationality of management cannot be attained in the context of the administration system, and the equality among residents and social consensus cannot be achieved in the context of the domination system.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 43-44
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 45-
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yuzuru SHIOMI
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 46-50
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    The so-salled high grade information technology has its light and shadow upon the human and social consciousness. In this essay, I'd like to mention several negative problems which the so-called high grade information technology will bring about. 1. Information gap Information is power. A high grade information society will widen the gap between the well informed and the poorly informed. The gap between the people who have access to any international information data bases and those who do not. 2. Harmfull influence of quasi-experience Information technology such as television and video picture will supply great deal of information which means quasi-experience to the minds of the immature. The flood of information and the easy access to the media will spoil the minds of the immature. 3. The control of information media The person who can control the information media, can control the minds of the people. It is well known that Mr. Regan could win the presidency by impressing his image on the voters, not his policy itsself. 4. Protection of privacy Many kinds of information on individual citizens have been stored in the computer data base of banks and other corporations. This fact means a possible threat to the protection of the privacy of individual citizens. 5. Danger to the health of the computer workers The computer workers always face the risk of psychiatric instability. We have to solve these problems, listed above, as we enter the age of high grade information technology.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 50-51
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 52-
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Hiroshi INOUE
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 53-57
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Recently, the area of mass culture has been undergoing rapid changes. As one of the causes of such changes, we can mention the penetration of new communication technologies. In order to describe the recent changes of mass culture, I took an approach from the two major aspects that caused these changes. One is the aspect of new communication technologies. The other is the aspect of how the contents of mass culture are changing by means of the new communication technologies. I pointed out some characteristics of the changes of mass culture. (1)Rapid increase of visual information, compared with printed information, (2)Enhancement of audio, (3)Connection of media, (4)Boundary between professional fields is getting blurred or disapearing, (5)Segmentation of audience-on the basis of professional interest and taste, (6)Movement from "receivers" to "users". At present, it is getting easier for the individual to have his own access to new communication technologies. We are facing the apperance of many media and channels which transmit mass culture. They are penetrating mass culture and as a result, the range of mass cultrue has greatly expanded. Now, it seems to me we have to search for a new expression to replace the word mass culture.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 58-59
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Satoshi BANDO
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 60-65
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    It is doubtless that trade union has become stabilized as the system of industrial relations in the developing country. However, recently trade union in that coutry seems declining in bargaining and organizing power from the time of the recession by oil-panic. On my opinion this problem comes from not only the recession but also mainly the changing from Industrial-Society to Post-Industrial-Society, which is same to Informationized Society in concept of the civilization. It is well-known that the factory system started from the time of The 1st industrial revolution, by which Industrial-Society started, still more trade unionism started too. Machines came into factories, manual skillnesses were spoiled and machineworkers were belonged to machine. On the next stage The 2nd industrial revolution developed factory from machine to equipment, built combined machines with control mecahnism. Charactaristic factory was assembly system, main workers were occupied by semi-skilled assemblers. The 3rd industrial revolution started by micro electronics; robot, flexible system and another computer equipment promote FA OA HA. ME-equipment has controllable mechanics with information equipment, therefore workers must have each position related information control worker, and there is no distrinction between blue and white collar worker. Very many soft workers should be needed and more for human services. The 3rd industrial revolution and Informationized Society start on the same time. New wave of trade union will be born from these new industrial relations and working systems.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 66-
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 67-
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Shumpei KUMON, Kaname IIO
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 68-
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 68-77
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 77-79
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Download PDF (359K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 79-81
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Download PDF (341K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 81-83
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Download PDF (369K)
  • Type: Article
    1985 Volume 3 Pages 84-92
    Published: November 01, 1985
    Released: July 28, 2017
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