This paper intends to investigate possibility of sustainable local society in Japan by focusing on risk of demolition of the middle class that might be caused by bipolarization of income under the progress of globalization. The author empirically assesses a relation between a structure of local employment and the middle class. The results support that the middle class in the local economy might be realized by employment in manufacturing industry. Moreover, the results suggest that promotions of employment in medical and welfare sectors might accelerate to demolish the middle class in the local economy, even though those sectors are expected to support the economies.
This paper focuses on local associations that emerged as peripheral insiders during the town recon- struction process from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011. It explores why these associations sprouted and developed from the periphery and also investigates how these associations influenced town reconstruction.
To achieve those objectives, interview surveys were conducted from 2012 to 2014 among local as- sociations in a small town that was severely affected by the Tsunami. The analysis, of how these local associations developed, was made using the information from the survey.
The result showed that, firstly, the emergence of local associations as peripheral insiders can be explained by various interrelated factors: needs, public policy, resource, knowledge, and consen- sus-building mechanism.
Secondly, some of local associations shifted from peripheral insiders to core insiders. Consequently, local governance structure changed from “hierarchy-dominant” mode to “dual” mode of hierarchy and network through their activities.
Thirdly, some of local associations developed as hubs and nodes of interactions between inside and outside of stakeholders. As a result, these developments led to the restructuring of the entire local network. Meanwhile, local associations as peripheral insiders extended the local network across the boundary by connecting to outside stakeholders.
Finally, local associations performed important roles in value and knowledge creation as well as social innovation. It can be argued that characteristics typical of “community of practice” that local associations had, facilitated the knowledge creation process.
These days cultural policy is confronting many shifts. Privatization is one of the biggest shifts to cultural policy. In Japan, in 2003 the Appointed Administrator-System started and public cultural fac- ulties have been administratored by Appointed Administrators. Not only central or local governments, but private sectors and NPOs are leading cultural policy at the regional level.
This study aims to discuss the process of privatization in local cultural policy. Especially, it pres- ents how local governments select administrators depending on the specialty of facilities. The processes and standards are different among local governments. However previous research have not analyzed the reasons of this diversity.
By conducting a case study of six large cities, this study shows the diversity of how administrators are selected in the cultural field. This study deals with cases of Sapporo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe and their attitude towards cultural and educational facilities. Data is collected from open source of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications by the author. Cultural and educa- tional facilities are divided into different categories of museums, cultural halls, and others (community centers).
It finds out that there are two types for selection processes of administrators of cultural education- al facilities. One is the process in which administrators are selected publicly. The other is the process in which administrators are selected beforehand and behind close doors. Further about the latter can be divided into three types. First, cities like Osaka tend to select administrators of museums uncompet- itively. Secondly, cities like Yokohama and Kyoto tend to select administrators of cultural halls uncom- petitively. Third, city like Nagoya select administrators of community centers uncompetitively. Finally, this study analyzes the reasons why this diversity happens. This study concludes one of the reasons is that local governments put emphasis on the cultural foundations founded by themselves rather than encouraging the growth of citizen groups.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the present state and issue of the Geiko culture in pro- vincial cities, by the case study of the Aizu “Higashiyama Geiko”. Except Kyoto, the down trend in the Geiko culture is a present problem. In the Aizu “Higashiyama Geiko”, the number of Geikos decreased from 152 person in 1930, to 20 person in 2013. But, there are some young Geikos, and some Jikata Geikos who can play the syamisen.
Higashiyama Geikos make their debut as Geikos, although their inexperience. So, it is said that they continue unsuccessful for at least three years. But, it means that they must train their arts after their debut for their lives as Higashiyama Geiko.
The companion is the rival of Higashiyama Geiko. But, some Higashiyama Geikos were originally in companions. And, some Geiko houses manage snack bars, and recruit companions. So, Higashiyama Geiko has a symbiotic relationship to the companion.
Traditional customers of Higashiyama Geiko are local people, especially middle-aged men. But, they are decreasing, because of self-restraint of the entertainment of business contacts. On the other hand, female tourists are interested in Geiko culture, rather than male tourists. They have different de- mands and characteristics, from the traditional male customers. The Geiko industry needs to construct new business model to win over them as new customers.
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the transformations of socio-economic systems that orig- inated from technologies. For instance, media and content industries can be conceptually explained as socio-economic complex systems that were constructed from technologies, rules, institutions, markets, and culture. Accordingly, this paper identifies these constituents and patterns of the systems in the abovementioned industries. These industries developed after the inventions of reproduction technol- ogies, and technological characteristics have contributed to the development of certain standardized patterns for these industries, such as content reproductions and the copyright business. Defining such patterns would help in conducting quantitative analyses regarding micro structural changes within the systems. The patterns would be transformed if the dominant technologies of the systems would change. The whole system is emergent and indecomposable; therefore, each element of the system is indicated conceptually in this paper. This approach would contribute as an explanation for the transformation of the whole complex system both deductively and empirically.
In general education or liberal arts education in universities, humanities, social sciences and natural sciences are taught as a main stream curriculum. On the other hand, teaching of generic skills such as problem solving has been also required recently. However, these two goals are not sufficiently con- sistent. Tamito Yoshida has proposed “designing science” considering current sciences as “cognizing science.” From this point of view, in general education from primary school to universities has been focusing on “cognizing science,” and is trying to introduce teaching of generic skills without paying attention to “designing science.” In this paper, the author points out this situation and proposes intro- duction of “designing science” in general education as well as vocational education considering change of the society.
Within a social system on knowledge-based society, we focus on a design thinking approach of a graphic facilitation for teacher education system. In this society through an global and uncertain world, a generation of an idea and value of knowledge creation are realized and accepted anywhere on a global scope. However we do not have a visualization methods of tacit knowledge. That is to say we suggest that injection of a graphic facilitation is useful clues as to this problem in teacher education system. To place importance of the perspectives of practical way to graphic facilitation, we contribute for develop- ment of human resources with 21st century skills.
Anime pilgrimages (anime seichi-junrei) is one of the today’s hot issues for impoverished local areas. We inquired the actual conditions of anime pilgrims and their influences to the actual locale. Anime pilgrims at first visit the locale for seeing the same place imaged in anime, however, some pil- grims change their reason to visit into the communication with inhabitants or other pilgrims. Although it seems to benefits the locale, it has the risk that active repeaters behave exclusively for others. As all anime products have their life to keep popular interests, every locale has to prepare how and when anime pilgrim campaign to stop. Recent trend is to extend its local festival to anime pilgrims.