Social and Economic Systems Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Social and Economic Systems Studies
Online ISSN : 2432-6550
Print ISSN : 0913-5472
Volume 9
Showing 1-37 articles out of 37 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Index
    1990 Volume 9 Pages Toc1-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kaname IIO
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 1-11
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In this paper, the autor discusses the essential relation between the social change and the socio-technological conditions, relating to the East-european revolution in 1989-90. The suther analyses the authoritarian characteristics of Marx's thought and Lenin's thought in comparison with the libertarian socialism. The libertarian socialism orginated in Owen and Fourie and developed into syndicalism, guild socialism and social democracy. The author presents the fundamental points to be considered, as the following. 1.It is only a myth that the essence of socialism is planning and the market economy inevitably results in capitalism. 2.Marxism is one of various currents in the socialist thought. We should be released from the myth that Marxism is the orthodox current in socialism, and be free from the prejudice on the libertarian socialism. 3.Both Marxism and Leninism are the products of the top-down control system which has its base in the 19-20th century type mechanization. In the age of modern technological revolution, the authoritarian socialism loses its base. 4.The impact of the modern technological revolution threatenes the base of capitalistic top-down control system, too.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 12-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Eshun HAMAGUCHI
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 13-17
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    It is impossible to expect smooth internationalization as a cultural exchange because there are so many diverse values in the world. As is clearly shown in the US-Japan negotiation called "Structural Impediments Initiative, " cultrural relativism has fallen away. Instead of the concept of internationalization, globalization at the level of civilization must be considered. Civilization means artifacts of life system, such as a mechanical apparatus, technique of production, political-economic norms and institutions, communicational media, orgamizational structure and management, and so on. In this aspect Japanese civilization has an excellent property like the protective system of earth environment, the electronic instrument of word processor, and "Japanese management" system in buziness organization based on corporativism. To analyze the Japanese system in the process of internationalization and globalization, a paradigm change from methodological individuum-ism to methodological relatum-ism must be required.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 18-19
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yoshimichi SATO
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 20-24
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Intended social change does not necessarily succeed because of unintended consequences. In this paper, we analyse the mechanism which makes intended social change fail. According to our model, intended social change fails when intervention of change agent changes social mechanism, which is a kind of mapping from means to end of the intended social change and expresses the actual relationship between them. This change of social mechanism in not intended by change agent, so we think it as a kind of unintended consequences. Then why and how does the intervention of change agent change the social mechanism? Whether the social mechanism changes or not depends on reactions of members in social system to the intervention of change agent. And these reactions empirically tend to be conservative against the intervention. So in case of intended change of institution, members will tend to refuse the change. Then social mechanism will change and this intended change will fail.
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  • Hiroshi DEGUCHI
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 25-30
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In this paper we study the concept of internal model with respect to the complex systems with decision makers and its self organization. The concept of self organization is now becoming very popular because of its physical and chemical applications in the area of hard science such as dissipative structures and synergetics. The success of the paradigm dose not mean the validity of its application to the area of soft science such as economics and sociology. In this paper we try to clarfy the difference of the self organization between these two areas. Complex systems with decision makers do not have the universal interactive law which determine systems activities. We decision makers determine our decision instead of the universal law. Therefore it is easy to change as the consequences of the several processes such as learning. We introduce the concept of internal model as a systemic property of a human activity system, which characterizes the world view or subjective information of dicision makers about the human activity systems and its environment. We also treat the problems about the concept of "Self". We discuss how the concept of internal model is important to study the self organization of the complex systems with decision makers, contrasting the concept of the role in the human activity systems.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 31-32
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 32-33
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Takao TANASE
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 34-37
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Modern law is special form for establishing social order, in which, the constituent members, on an equal footing, make decisions through their rational dialogue and thereby check the arbitrary exercise of power. The use of law as an instrument for making social change is possible only in such societies as to accept the above-mentioned order-establishing form as right one. Viewed from the this standpoint, Japanese society is not fully equipped with the necessary conditions for making social change by law. For, in spite of its apparent constitutionalism, it is often observed, not only in the effectuation but also in the legislation, to "bypass the law", as shown by "Ichibatsu-Hyakkai" and "Gyosei-Shido", the tendencies to make the content of the law as simple as possible and to delegate the details to the administration, and so on. As factors explaning this phenomenon, in addition to the efficiency in realizing policies from the viewpoint of the political elites, we can list the traditional cultural ones, such as the authoritative charactor of Japanese society pointed out by R.Benedict, the prevailing precaution against making social order by general and abstract rule, and so on. One may appreciate this bypassing process as a source of the vitality of Japanese society. However, as the society becomes more matured, it is highly probable that the above-mentioned process becomes less workable because of the overload, the vague coercion implicit in the process less tolerated, and the necessary conditions for the social change by law more prepared.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 37-38
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 39-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Muneo AZEGAMI
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 40-44
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    A policy is urgently required in Japan to convert waste management system. That is to establish a recycling system in urban society aiming at the proper treatment of hazardous chemical wastes and promoting resource recovery from wastes simultaneously. As a methodology of converting the system, this report defines the life cycle of the systems and analises that there are six stages in this life cycle. Moreover, there ane three patterns in converting the systems, which are conducted by a dispensation of Nature, by an invisible hand in the market and by a social movement. The necessary method to convert is the pattern conducted by a social movement. This report clarifies the necessity of creating a new social procedure as "social experimental project system". Particularly, "Public Project Trust" is formed by industrial, governmental and academic organizations in the bidding procedure in public projects, which is analised in this report as seriously influential to convert the waste menagement system. In conclusion, it is mentioned that the conversion of the system is subjext to the implementation of policies and projects to extinguish public project trust. Finally, this report proposes some conrete measures for carrying out feasibility studies of such projects, role of national assembly at this stage, and ordering engineering services separately in the bidding procedure in public projects.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 44-46
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 47-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Tadao KIYONARI
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 48-52
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Japan's economy is characterized by a large number of small businesses and a well-defined social division of labor. Since 1980's, relationship between big business and small business is transforming from "dual structure" to "network structure". The vertical relationship with big business at the top has declined, and the horizontal network-type relationships have developed in a complicated manner. Such new type of relationships have been constructed regardless of the boundary between industries. Competitiveness of Japan's industries depend on not only "Japanese-style management", but also network-type relationship between big business and small business.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 51-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 52-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Mutsundo ATARASHI
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 53-59
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Under the global current of informationalization and internationalization, now we are having various new experiences. In those experiences I can point out following expressly socio-cultural evnents. (1)restricting of intermadiating effects through the middel groups. (2)over-differentiation and over-complexation of social world. (3)decreasing of organistic integrity in socio-cultural systems. (4)declining of "stationary effects" in primary groups. (5)weakening of the "commonness" in local community. (6)contradictory coexistence of capitalistic society and cultural items. (7)hypertrophy of pseudo-environment through "media-mix" effects. (8)increasing of borderlessness in socio-cultural systems. (9)shifting of cultural reference from "universal to specific culture". (10)progressing of "socio-cultural cavitization" and overindividuation. In these situations we have to construct "life system" as a cognitive and pragmatic model to acieve the self realization by rational diagnosis and positive perspectives.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 59-60
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 61-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Kei KOTO
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 62-67
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    Hokkaido has been recognized as a land supplying many foodstuffs and natural resources. The coal mining industry in Hokkaido was extensively developed for economic recovery after World II by the priority production policy of the Japanese government. However, the energy revolution, that is the shift from coal to oil since the early 1960's, has forced the reduction of coal mining production for the past three decades. Ashibetsu City in the central part of Hokkaido was once a typical coal mining district with the maximum population, at its height, of about 75, 000. The population has decreased to about 26, 000. Since the early 1960's many endeavors have been made in Ashibetsu to establish new business activities to substitute for the reduction of the coal industry in order to stop population decline. Their efforts have been devoted to asking established companies for allocation of manufacturing plants, encouraging new local undertaking of resort businesses and developing new product lines utilizing native resources and materials. Now we can see several results of those efforts. The population, however, will continue to decrease because of the difficulty of substitution for such a large reduction of coal production. Judging from experience of reforms, we know that regional and global socioeconomic systems should be spontaneously organized toward the symbiosis through the interaction of the natural and artifical environments.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 68-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 69-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yoshihide HORIUCHI
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 70-75
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    In the last half of the twentieth century, mankind is facing major global environmental issues-such as global warming up, ozone hole, forest destruction, acid rain, etc. Hoever, in some cases such as CO_2 and support for developing nations, we seem to be moving from analyzing symptoms to finding their treatments, without identifying the real problems. Thus, we may end up solving a wrong problem, as Ackoff said. The paper summarizes symptomatique and problematique of major environmental issues. For them, △ optimistic views ; ▼ pessimistic views ; ◎ generally agreed-upon points : ※ issues with insufficient data and / or theories are summarized. Next, the paper discusses major points of concern for idealizing our future, including : new worldview of the earth including nature and mankind, rather than "nature for mankind" ; new information system for people, rather than for governments and big business ; education and welfare improvement for the less privileged people of the developed and developing nations ; etc. Finally, the paper concludes that the current discussions on world environmental problems seems to : (1)be more preactive (Forecast the future and avoid the worst), rather than interactive (Idealize and create the future) ; and (2)have a tendency to link the notion : "Every person should be saved from the environmental crisis" with "We are capable of saving everyone." We should know what we can and cannot do. We should have an ideal image of the earth and mankind for the time period well beyond our stakes such as 300 years from now, with a reasonable lifestyle and population of mankind in order not to place strain on the nature, as a starting point of our interactive planning for this planet.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 75-76
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 77-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Jiro OBATA
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 78-83
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    L.Althusser and J.Ranciere, the joint authors of the first edition of Reading Capital, suggested that the Capital shoud be re-read in the same manner of which Marx had read the discourses of the classical economixsts. That is the dual readings, the direct reading and the symptomatic reading. The direct reading corresponds with the concept of critique which is young Marx's main theme. On the other hand, the symptomatic reading became major method in the Capital, when Marx performed the critique of classical economics. The symptomatic reading or the critical reading is to be accomplished not in seeking answers of the problematic but in trying transformation of the problematic itself. It must be this kind of reading that should be crucial in the effort of restructuring of the soviet-socialistic systems. In this viewpoint, almost all Japanese Marxian economist, especially uno scholars, must reconsider their dogmatic discipline seriously. On the contrary, if we intend to re-read the Capital critically, we will be able to utilize the theory of value and exploitation which was designed by Professor Morishima in the framework of linear mathematical methode.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 83-84
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 85-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Yoshinori ISOMICHI
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 86-89
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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    At present we are entering into the post-industrial & information society age. So our old political & economical system does not fit to the future society. Therefore we must make a new social system. The most important keywords for the design are as follows. (1)Decentralization of power, division of powers, (2)Direct democracy using new media, (3)Improvement in the legal person concept, (4)Production tax, negative capitation tax, (5)Nullification of the inheritance system.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 89-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Tomitaro SUEISHI
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 90-
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 90-92
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 92-94
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 94-95
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1990 Volume 9 Pages 95-104
    Published: October 25, 1990
    Released: July 28, 2017
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