The split infinitive is defined as a clause where the sentence adverb is put, not before to, i. e. outside of the clause, but within the clause immediately before the infinitive (Curme, 1947). This paper argues on previous controversies on the split infinitive, and introduces current judgements of linguists.
The split infinitive construction, especially the insertion of negators i. e. not and never is discussed by reviewing earlier literature that deals with comparison between the not-to-V order and the to-not-V order and by interviewing some native speakers of English. This paper proposes two reasons for the use of split infinitives. One is to emphasize the infinitive. The other is to achieve a natural rhythm with strong (stressed) and weak (unstressed) syllables alternating and/or to achieve smooth phonetic linking.
This study originated from an assumption that Shakespeare's works might have potentially influenced Churchill over envisaging the main pillars of key rhetoric and structures when he prepared his speech manuscripts.
We studied Churchill's speeches mainly drafted during the period overlapping World War II and found that the frequency of the word “few” increased significantly in some speeches delivered immediately after Churchill took office as England's prime minister in May 1940; these speeches were recognized as monumental masterpieces of twentieth-century history.
We then moved on to examine Shakespeare's 39 works focusing on the word, using the same method of counting their frequency, which revealed a similar characteristic in Shakespeare's Henry V. Occurrence of the word “few” in Henry V is more than twice the number in any other play. Our findings strongly suggest that the word “few” is frequently used and stressed to show the negative aspects at the beginning of both masterpieces and then is dramatically switched in a paradoxical fashion to manifest utmost spirituality to unite those who do not have enough power to protect the homeland, a parallel between Churchill's speeches and Shakespeare's drama.
As Churchill was familiar with Shakespeare's works and could recite scenes from his plays by memory since his youth, it enabled him to invigorate the very same spirit that Shakespeare pioneered. Thus, we are able to witness the spirits that once seemed to live only in the realm of pure imagination or literature evolve into our real world.
Two protagonists in Othello and The Winter's Tale, Othello and Leontes, are similarly jealous. They suddenly become suspicious of their wives' chasteness. Their jealousy puts them under the obsession of their wives' adultery with the men whom they have trusted. The culmination of their jealousy follows eavesdropping scenes in which Iago (or Iago-like language) works the protagonists' perspectives into self-deceptive ones.
This paper argues that the protagonists' spectatorship in the eavesdropping scenes is common to real audience in the theater; they experience a common process of interpreting what they see on stage by what they just heard. The scenes show the protagonists “ocular proofs” which they have required in order to conclude their suspicion. However, the suspicion was originally planted by Iago's delusive language, and their eyes have been so strongly affected that they misunderstand what they see as true “ocular proofs”. The language may work on the audience watching the first act of The Winter's Tale, because Leontes' eye affected by Iago-like language is the only interpreter to tell them what is going on the stage.
When the protagonists' points of view to depict what they see onstage in their asides to the audience are infected by venomous power of language, it is important that Iago describes himself as a spider. The image of a spider appears even in a speech delivered by Leontes. Considering it as a key to analyze the presence of Iago in both plays, this paper also refers to spider-related expressions. As long as we say that Iago plays a role of a playwright controlling the world of his own play with his masterly words, the presence of Iago may give us a common ground to analyze how the worlds of the plays are made, controlled, and represented in the eyes of spectators both on the stages and in the seats.
Both “X is over” and “X is up” mean termination / completion of X. The particle “over” represents a rotational movement parallel to the horizon of the earth. The movement represented by “over” is metaphorically similar to the whole process of an event: every event has a beginning, an unfoldment and an end. The movement can be likened to a rotation in an arc on the axis parallel to the horizon represented by “over” semicircle. The movement tracing an arc to the opposite side results in end of the event and hence “over” implies termination / completion. In turn, the particle “up” has two conflicting meanings of “termination / completion”: completion after fulfillment and completion resulting from depletion. When we say “The waiter filled up my glass with beer”, my glass is filled with beer to its brim and the action of pouring beer is completed. When we say “Drink up your beer”, the drinker's glass is emptied and the action of drinking beer is completed, which means depletion leading to completion. The meaning “termination / completion” in “X is up” has to do with both “fulfillment” and “depletion” of the content.
Herman Melville is a storyteller who places great emphasis on color expressions. When discussing Melville's sense of color, we need to reexamine the contrastive or dualistic characteristic in his short story, “The Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids.”
In “The Paradise of Bachelors,” the narrator uses a number of gaudy color expressions, but once the expression “snowy surcoat” appears to describe one of the bachelors' white coats to connote death. Conversely, the color “white” is used in many scenes of “The Tartarus of Maids,” where factory girls are forced to work without a break. The narrator means to imply the bachelors will also perish in the future, which is why he says he feels “inverted similitude” in the latter story, and also why the stories are not clearly contrastive.
We can argue that Melville wishes to paint a tragic world with the colors “white,” “red” and “black” as a means of expression, and uses the diptych form as a framework, and is thereby warning us that the real world is too hard a place for us without looking at it with “colored and coloring glasses.”
To help students to improve their English writing, writing strategies of Confucian Heritage Cultural (CHC) students such as looking at model essays and participating in peer review were adopted in my research. The purpose of this study is to analyze the writing strategies which good language learners from CHC countries adopted and to investigate the effectiveness of applying them to a Japanese context.
46 students were recruited from X university. The participants were divided into two groups and took part in separate English writing classes between October 2014 and January 2015. Before and after the treatment the students wrote essays as pretests and posttests.
In this experiment, the students' writing ability was determined based on the average number of words in their essays. The ability of groups A and B were almost the same, according to the pretests. After the treatment, the difference between the average number of words in the posttests in both groups showed a statistical significance (F (1, 44)=84.989, p=.01). The results show that Group A, who had looked at model essays and engaged in peer review, showed more improvement in their writing than Group B. The results also indicate that the students in Group A were more likely to write concluding sentences (t (22)=5.850, p<.05).