Journal of The Japan Society of Microgravity Application
Print ISSN : 0915-3616
Volume 26 , Issue 3
MEIS Marangoni Experiment in Space, Boiling and Two-phase Flow, Numerical Analysis of Thermo-fluid Dynamics
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 149-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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  • Hiroshi KAWAMURA
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 150-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    Fluid physics experiment started on 22nd August, 2008 as the first science experiment on Kibo. MEIS (Marangoni Experiment in Space) was first proposed in 1992 and selected in 1993 as a candidate of the first group of the space experiment.The MEIS aims to perform a series of experiment on Marangoni convection in a liquid bridge under the microgravity. It took 15 years up to the start of the space experiments. These 15 years, however, allowed us better understanding of the phenomena through more detailed terrestrial studies and also some modification of experimental apparatus to obtain better images and signals. As the experiment approached, the preparation of experimental operation became an important issue. We worked intensively together with operation team of JAXA to find out the best collaborative operation structure between science and operation teams. The MEIS ran successfully to bring us new findings, which was not able to be obtained through the terrestrial studies even for 15 years.
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  • Satoshi MATSUMOTO
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 155-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    This article describes activities of a science coordinator to realize the space experiment utilized the Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo”. The first series of MEIS (Marangoni Experiment In Space) has been successfully carried out as the first scientific experiment in Kibo and produced fruitful and significant results. In technical point of view, excellent performance of the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility and Experiment Cell was confirmed and the Japanese sophisticated operation team and systems were demonstrated. The roles and key points of the science coordination are explained. And the problems to develop the future human space activity in Japan are also mentioned.
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  • Mitsuru OHNISHI
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 159-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    The first series of Marangoni Experiment in Space (MEIS) was successfully conducted from 22nd August, 2008 to 17th October. Until that time, researchers suffered serious difficulties on bubbles inside a liquid volume in space experiments. Finally, however, the MEIS team has been able to win a beautiful liquid bridge without bubbles on 31st August, although the team faced many bubbles in the bridge at the beginning. To remove them, the team made the best use of various techniques based on experiences of the prior experiments. This is the record of the experiences on Battles against Bubbles.
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  • Koichi NISHINO
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 164-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    The first series of Marangoni Experiment in Space (MEIS) has been carried out successfully in 2008 as the first scientific space experiment in ``Kibo''. This article is to review an technical aspect of this space experiment from a viewpoint of development of 3-D PTV (Three-Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry) and its installtion into FPEF (Fluid Physics Experiment Facility).
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  • Ichiro UENO
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 168-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    On-orbit fluid physics experiment of 'Marangoni Experiment in Space (MEIS)' on Kibo aboard the International Space Station (ISS) was successfully carried out from August to October in 2008. This memorable first experiment on the Japanese experimental module had been prepared and implemented with invaluable contributions by students of Tokyo University of Science and Yokohama National University. This article introduces a part of outstanding perfor- mances and contributions by the students through the MEIS-I with several episodes.
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  • Masato SAKURAI, Shoichi YOSHIHARA, Mitsuru OHNISHI
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 174-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    At the second launch of sounding rocket experiment TR-IA #2 (1992),``Observation of Marangoni Convection and its Contro'' will be performed with Fluid Dynamics Technology Experiment Apparatus #2 (FTX#2). In order to develop the experimental technique and to determine the critical experimental conditions for the TR-IA #2 experiment, the preliminary parabolic flight experiments were carried out. Marangoni convection in a liquid bridge of silicone oil was observed during 6 minutes microgravity condition by TR-IA #2 sounding rocket. Laminar and oscillatory Marangoni convection were observed depending on temperature differences. The amplitude of both velocity and temperature fluctuation increased as time passed. The frequency of this fluctuation was about 0.1Hz. The amplitude of temperature fluctuation was decreased inside a solid /liquid boundary layer. After TR-IA #2 experiment, micro-feeder and 3 dimensional observation methods were adopted. Beside what is mentioned above, microgravity experiments history and lesson that has been learned from liquid bridge experiments are introduced.
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  • Yuki KAWAI
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 185-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    “MEIS” experiment, the first science experiment in Japanese Experiment Module (KIBO), started in August 2008 and successfully finished in October 2008. To realize the experiment operations, many preparations had been done. This paper introduces the preparations of experiment operation procedures and astronaut training for the experiment.
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  • Kazumi KOGURE
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 188-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    As the space experiment design adjustment, JSF has arranged many technical meetings for MEIS with UI team since 1993 when MEIS has been selected as the 1st theme for the JEM experiment. Added to this is carrying out a variety of tests to develop the experiment equipment and cell. JSF has been taking part in a preparation of the equipment and test liquid for the flight model.
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  • Shih-Che HUANG, Kazunari KAWAKAMI, Osamu KAWANAMI, Itsuro HONDA, Yousu ...
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 191-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    This paper presents an experimental investigation of forced convective boiling heat transfer in a single microtube with inner diameters of 1 mm and 0.5 mm under different flow directions and flow velocities. FC-72 is employed as a test fluid, and its subcooling temperature is set to 15 K. A transparent heated microtube, which made by Pyrex grass coated with the gold thin film on the inner wall of the tube, is used as a test section. The experimental results show that the effects of gravity on flow behaviour and critical heat flux were observed under low velocities conditions in 1mm-tube. However, the gravity effects on the forced convective boiling in a 0.5 mm-tube and in high velocities conditions in 1 mm-tube were not found. The results indicate that the threshold of distinguishing between a microtube and a conventional tube has to consider for flow behaviour, heat transfer and critical heat flux, respectively. Key word: Flow boiling, Hert transfer, Bubble behaviour, Flow visualization, Microtube
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  • Akihiro NAKANO, Tomoki YAMASHITA, Chihiro INOUE, Takehiro HIMENO, Taka ...
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 197-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    Unsteady deformations of liquid surface in a rectangular vessel with two parallel vanes were experimentally investigated to obtain the fundamental knowledge of capillary flow in intricate vane-wall geometry under microgravity conditions. In this study, we mainly investigated the viscous effect on the capillary flow and the gap effect at the vane-wall intersections. Experiments were carried out during the free fall time in a drop tower and the transient rise of the meniscus was observed by using a video camera. We confirmed that the Ohnesorge number was closely related with the viscous effect on the capillary flow and that the existence of gap at vane-wall intersection was expected to have much effect on the capillary rise of fluids with high viscosity. This may be due to the complexity of the geometrical configuration of the vessel.
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  • Yoshino SAKATA, Osamu KAWANAMI, Yusuke KOTANI, Yuka ASADA, Tadashi NAG ...
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 204-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    A transparent heating surface with multiple arrays of 88 thin film temperature sensors and mini-heaters was developed for the clarification of boiling heat transfer mechanisms under microgravity conditions to investigate gravity effects on the relation between behaviors of microlayer and local heat transfer coefficients underneath attached vapor bubbles. Local surface temperature distribution was controlled on the entire surface by electronic circuits connected to a laptop. Preliminary analysis of experimental results obtained in microgravity pool boiling experiments by parabolic flights campaign in Nov., 2008 by using ESA aircraft is reported.
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  • Haruhiko OHTA, Hitoshi ASANO, Osamu KAWANAMI, Ryoji IMAI, Koichi SUZUK ...
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 213-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    Increase in the satellite size and corresponding power consumption requires the development of thermal management system handling a large amount of waste heat and its transportation along a long distance to the radiators. Boiling and two-phase flow becomes a powerful means for this purpose because it transports latent heat of vaporization. It minimizes the size of cold plates, liquid flow rate, i.e. pump power, and launch mass. In the present paper, ISS experiment on forced convection boiling is proposed to obtain the data for the design of the high performance space thermal management systems based on the analysis of liquid-vapor flow structures and heat transfer characteristics under microgravity conditions. Subjects to be investigated in the proposed experiment and the outline of experimental setup are clarified. Key Word: flow boiling, two-boiling, microgravity, reduced gravity, ISS
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  • Tomoji TAKAMASA, Tatsuya HAZUKU
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 218-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    In a thermal system of spacecraft, two-phase flow system now is an excellent alternative to the conventional single-phase system in transporting large amount of thermal energy at a uniform temperature regardless of variations in the heat loads. In addition, two-phase flows exist in a wide range of applications and enabling technologies in space. If, however,``understanding'' we mean that the phenomenon in two-phase flow system can be predicted in terms of governing parameter, it should be concluded that two-phase flow is poorly understood item for in space use, and many questions are still open. A thorough theoretical approach with such microscopic experimental results as three-dimensional and high spatiotemporal measurements is needed to assess the performance of two-phase flow for in space. Our recent study of gas-liquid two-phase flows at microgravity condition is outlined in this report, especially for which regarding to interfacical area transport and drift flux. Research on two-phase at micro- or reduced-gravity conditions is expected to be conducted more widely in the future, shedding light light on two-phase flow phenomena for in spaceuse.
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  • Ryoji OINUMA, Frederick R. BEST, Richard C. KURWITZ
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 226-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    Under the reduced gravity condition, liquid and gas do not separate by gravity as on Earth. The lack of natural phase separation impacts a variety of multiphase flow systems, such as life support, waste water processing, and power systems. For instance, moisture exhaled from space vehicle crew members must be removed from the cabin air by humidity control systems. To answer this demand, researchers have conceived various methods of producing phase separation under reduced gravity environments from 1950’s. These separation types have included wicking, elbow, hydrophobic/hydrophilic, vortex, rotary fan separators, and combinations thereof. Each class of separator achieved acceptable performance for particular applications and most performed in some capacity for the space program. Texas A&M University has developed vortex type separator allowing a wide range of flow rate and gas quality of two-phase flow, and successfully proved its performance on a variety of systems requiring liquid / gas phase separation aboard the NASA reduced gravity experiment aircraft. The vortex separator has also demonstrated the ability as dehumidification device and boiler under the reduced gravity condition.
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  • Takehiro HIMENO, Yutaka UMEMURA, Satoshi NONAKA, Toshinori WATANABE, S ...
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 232-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    For the prediction of sloshing phenomena in the propellant tanks of reusable launch vehicle, the dynamic motion of liquid in sub-scale vessels were numerically simulated with the originally developed CFD code, called CIP-LSM. The important features of surface deformation and wave breaking were successfully reproduced in the computation. In addition, as the preliminary investigation, the heat transfer and phase change between gaseous and liquid phase enhanced by violent sloshing were tried to be simulated.
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  • Hiroshi KANEKO, Kojiro KOBA, Ichiro UENO
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 237-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    Effect of thermo-fluid convective flow on solidification process of a pure metal in a thin melt layer with free surface(s) is investigated by applying the phase-field method. Several kinds of boundary conditions are examined; a thin melt in a Couette shallow cavity that a surface is forced-driven at a constant velocity, and a thin melt with a single or double free surface(s) under Marangoni effect. The authors especially focus on the latter cases. The growth rate and resultant morphology of the dendritic crystal are discussed. The authors make a first comparison with an on-orbit scientific demonstration by Dr. Donald Pettit, a NASA astronaut, on the International Space Station in 2003 in the case of thin layer with double free surfaces.
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  • Ryoji IMAI
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 244-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
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    Fluid and thermal behaviors in gas and liquid phase in closed tank were investigated by numerical calculation. In this calculation, mass and energy transfer due to evaporation on free surface was considered. Natural convection in both liquid and gas phase were separately calculated. In gas phase, binary diffusion convection including mixture of vapor component and non condensable gas were additionally considered. In these calculations thermal stratification was obtained in liquid phase by applying heat at side wall. Evaluation tests by using mixture of ethanol and nitrogen gas were also conducted. Pressure history was compared with calculated results, and it was proved that calculated results agreed with experimental ones.
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  • Motoshi KAMADA, [in Japanese], Kazuhiko NISHITANI, Takayuki HOSON, Haj ...
    2009 Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 249-
    Published: July 31, 2009
    Released: January 21, 2021
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency(JAXA) has two plant physiological space experiments that utilize the European Modular Cultivation System(EMCS) facility of European Space Agency(ESA). The theme of the two experiments, namely, Cell Wall and Resist Wall(CWRW)are aimed at understanding the formation of plant cell wall and the mechanism of gravity resistance in plants. A ground-based study for monitoring the germination and growth of Arabidopsis, science test, was performed for 50 days in the EMCS experiment reference model(ERM), as a preparation of the onboard CWRW space experiment. Four strains of Arabidopsis seeds were germinated and the seedlings were cultivated in the dedicated plant cultivation chamber(PCC) in the EMCS ERM until the inflorescence stems grew to approximately 10-cm long.. The objective of this science test was to successfully grow Arabidopsis seedlings in the EMCS ERM for determining the approximate duration of the onboard CWRW space experiment. As a result, the PCC could be used to grow three strains, i.e., wild type, lefty mutant, and gene modified pCesA7::GUS, Arabidopsis plants from seeds to 10-cm-long inflorescence stems within 50 days. This science test confirmed that the PCC is biocompatible and a good support system for these strains growth during the entire experiment. On the other hand, the hmg mutant seeds, which are more delicate and susceptible to outer environment than other strains, failed to germinate. Therefore, increase the number of sowing hmg mutant seeds into the PCC and germination test using the PCC and the germination test using the PCC for selection the hmg mutant seeds with best germination rate were essential for the future onboard CWRW space experiment.
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