Along with dissemination of high-resolution satellite imagery, object-based classification providing interpretation-like results has attracted attention over the years. Object-based classification is accomplished by two steps, i.e. segmentation and classification. Segmentation is a process to divide pixels into homogeneous spatial group, and classification is a process to determine class of the group based on their feature quantity. It is major advantage that various feature quantities representing texture and shape are available for classification, however, segmentation prior to classification is also important to produce appropriate land use map. In this study, we proposed the manner to assign parameters for segmentation and discussed on feature quantities in the object-based classification to obtain agricultural land features, i.e. 1) field boundaries, 2) growth uniformity, and 3) sowing/planting way, represented by QuickBird image observed in plantation area in Sumatra, Indonesia.Segmentation was defined by three parameters. “shape” defines homogeneity of object in term of morphological features and “compactness” is in irregularity. “scale parameter” defines the size of object. First of all, 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 were respectively assigned to “shape” and “compactness”. Through the nine pair's trials, the best combination was selected by visual comparison, thendetermined the “scale parameter”.By the method, several heuristics for segmentation were obtained to classify road features representing field boundary and growing variability patch. Following the segmentation assigned the parameter by the manner, classification with spectral, texture, and morphological features were examined. By the results, classification accuracy was improved than the case of unadjusted parameters that was assigned default values for multi spectral data in software, and 1) field boundaries and 2) growth uniformity were acceptably classified.
To understand livelihood of cultivators and pastoralists in Fakara region of Niger located in west Africa, plural fact-finding spots were conducted by using the questionnaire to 27 Djarma men who rely on farming , 40 Djarma women and 38 Foulani men who are basically pastoralists. The contents are divided into two part; one is baseline survey for general information about household component (number, age, sex and residence), livelihood activities including major and minor ones, usage of wild plants, and so on and another is about the ‘Crisis Year' and their coping activities of past 20 years. Following results were obtained; 1) ‘Crisis Year' and their coping activities were different between cultivators and pastoralists even in the same area, and 2) most pastoralists have coped with their ‘Crisis Year' by selling their livestock and the cultivators have coped with them by combining various activities, and 3) the women also have coped with their ‘Crisis Year' by cultivating some vegetables during their husbands' absences. And their activities in the dry season have played a significant role to avoid the crisis. From these results, it could be concluded that 1) the recognition and sensitivity to the crisis of Sahelian people are various according to the differences of the livelihood and the activities during the dry season and 2) the risk management system in the Sahel where droughts and famines have often attacked has been grasped.
Vietnam has achieved rapid economic growth in this decade. It is, however, not yet on solid ground in the struggle against poverty, especially in rural areas of central to south central Vietnam and mountainous areas in northern Vietnam. Poverty reduction is still one of the most pressing issues of rural development policy. Since livelihoods and household economy is diverse under different socio-ecological condition, the levels and situation of poverty is not same as well. As a premise of designing and implementing actions in rural development assistance for poverty reduction, it is necessary to have a site-specific identification on agro-climatic characteristics, livelihood activities and living environments related to poverty. Setting Van Quat Dong village and Tien Thanh village in Huong Phong commune located along the Tam Giang lagoon as our study area, we focused on the following three specific interests; 1) to characterize livelihood activities and income sources of households, 2) to identify some situations of the households related to poverty and 3) to make comparison between the situation of households and the measure of poverty-line defined by Vietnamese authority.The study shows that major household income source is generated from farm activities including rice cultivation, animal husbandry and aquaculture. Among them, rice cultivation is a major livelihood activity and largely shares for household income. The places of these activities are done in lower terrain and, thus, frequently damaged by seasonal flooding. According to the measure of national poverty-line, the rate of poor households was 24 % in Van Quat Dong village and 20% in Tien Thanh village. Besides, the other evidences show the situation reflected from poverty, for example, the rate of houses vulnerable to seasonal flooding (81 %), the households without toilets (40.5 %) and the households with chronic sick person (40 %). Human wastes, garbage and wastewater from livestock pen are leaked directly to river, creek and lagoon water where people wash dishes and take bath. These facts suggest that the economic measure (poverty-line) is not necessarily sufficient to characterize local situation related to poverty, and some other aspects such as disaster preparedness, sanitation, health and diet should also be taken in account.
Use system of biomass resources for feedstock of energy and material should be developed based on a region scale and bio-refinery concept. To use the biomass resources thoroughly, determination of an available amount of biomass resources based on the biomass resources production and its utilization in the region is needed. We estimated available amount of biomass resources based on study of production and utilization of crop residues and food processing factory wastes in Northeast Thailand. We carried out survey of yield and residue production of rice, cassava and sugarcane which are main crops in Northeast Thailand, and carried out interview to farmers and food processing factories related with the crops in 2004-05. Using these results, annual biomass production except for food is estimated as 1.87 M t from paddy fields and rice mill factories, 0.62 M t from cassava fields and cassava starch processing and tip factories and 2.63 M t from sugarcane fields and sugar mill factories in Khon Kaen Province in 2003-05, and available amount of the biomass resources is estimated 0.37M t, 0.35 M t and 0.42 M t, respectively.