Recently, receiving the Human Genome Project was completed; public concern has attracted acquisition of personal biological information from the genome level. Such research stimulates to achieve personalized medicine in the medical field and DNA identification in scientific criminal investigation. In this review, recent advances in nano-biodevice research were overviewed in the emphasis on the application to not only personalized medical but scientific criminal investigation.
In a recent murder case, many feathers were left at the crime scene and collected for analysis. It seemed they were likely left from the suspect's torn jacket. Goose and duck downs are commonly used for clothes and bedclothes, especially in high quality goods where goose feathers are used most often. Unfortunately, at the time of the murder there were few studies in Japan about down identification. This paper presents how to identify goose and duck downs by microscopy. Ten downs were removed at random from each stuffed bird from sixty-one species at the prefectural museum. Ten downs were removed at random from ten geese and ten ducks, respectively, at the prefectural farm. Therefore, the authentic sample set (family or species known) included ten downs each from eighty-one birds, representing sixty-three species. In addition, two hundred goose downs and two hundred duck downs were obtained from samples supplied by the Japan Spinners Inspecting Foundation in Tokyo. These down samples were examined microscopically with respect to eight morphological characteristics: full length, color, node shape, maximum node width, maximum node interval, node distribution, node density (number of nodes per mm) and pigment distribution. Morphological data from geese were compared with ducks and analyzed statistically using F-test. Duck and goose downs are identified primarily by their triangular nodes. In birds of the sixty-three species other than those from the duck and geese species, triangular nodes were found only in the Anatidae, Columbidae and Psittacidae families. Fortunately, it was quite simple to distinguish the families by the node distribution along the shaft of the barbules. For example, the Anatidae family has triangular nodes only toward the tip of the barbule, the Columbidae family has them mainly toward the base of the barbule, and the Psittacidae family has them uniformly distributed along the shaft of the barbule. Based on feather nodes, both goose and duck can be placed in the Anatidae family. Nevertheless, they can be distinguished. Goose has wider maximum node intervals than the duck, usually more than fifty-five micrometers. On the other hand, duck has higher node density than the goose, more than sixteen per mm. Statistical analysis using the F-test showed that the maximum node interval and node density were useful characteristics for distinguishing a goose from a duck down.
A rapid and simple analysis method for the chiral determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolites, amphetamine (AP) and p-hydroxymethamphetamine (pOHMA), in urine by capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been developed. Urine sample was directly injected into the CE system after pretreatment of dilution and filtration. In the analyses of healthy people's urine samples spiked with MA, AP and pOHMA, the detection limits in urine were 0.5, 0.5 and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. The recovery of each compound from urine was 95-105%. The proposed method was successfully applicable to the chiral analysis of urine samples from MA addicts.
The morphology of micro algae in three soil samples from muddy roads near poultry farms was examined for the forensic discrimination of soils. The surface of each sample was covered with green substance considered to be micro algae. Furthermore the soils contained other material that might interfere with the observation of the algae, therefore agar culture media was used as a method of separating the various alga species from the soil matrix. The C culture medium and Hyponex® were used for agar media and the C culture medium was also used for the liquid culture medium. Air-dried soil samples were dispersed with 10 times weight/volume of sterilized water in test tubes. A few drops of supernatant liquid were transferred and spread on the agar culture medium. Subsequently, observed colonies of algae were transplanted into the liquid culture medium. Colonies and cultured algae were observed under the stereomicroscope, and the biological microscope was also applied to detailed examination. Cyanophyceae and chlorophyceae were observed in all the samples and bacillariophyceae in only one of them. Morphological features of cyanophyceae and chlorophyceae are described, and also the classification scheme for forensic discrimination is proposed in this paper. The three soil samples were successfully discriminated by the comparison of algae according to the proposed classification protocol.
We had already reported a specificity of the anti-A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that were produced by immunization of mice with salivary mucin obtained from blood group A secretors and non-secretors. In this report, an anti-A mAb K7405 reacting to the saliva from secretor, and a K7516 anti-A mAb reacting to the saliva from both secretor and non-secretor were applied to forensic investigation. In the forensic blood typing of saliva, blood group A secretors and blood group A non-secretors can be clearly discriminated by the combined application of K7405 and K7516 for an absorption test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and mixed cell agglutination reaction. However, the two mAbs could not completely discriminate between secretors and non-secretors from seminal samples.
A new method for searching latent fingerprints imprinted on plane surfaces using microscopic water particle and yellow light reflection was proposed. The microscopic water particle generated by a portable steamer was sprayed to the surface and the yellow light was irradiated obliquely from behind at the same time. The microscopic water particle remained as a hemisphere on the plane surface except for the latent fingerprint spots and the yellow light reflected by the water particle was observed through a yellow filter. The other color light mixed from sunshine or a room light did not interfere with the searching because they were cut off by the yellow filter before the observation. Thus latent fingerprints could be found as dark spots. By using this method, latent fingerprints imprinted on plane surfaces made of plastics, metals, glasses and other painted materials could be found as dark spots even in a lighted room. The microscopic water particle on the surfaces disappeared spontaneously after the search and left no damage behind.
The near infrared light with 0.7-1.0 μm wavelength is widely used for nondestructive decipherment of obliterated writings. However, the near-infrared light is absorbed by oil-based nigrosine dye black marking-pen ink. On the other hand, the near-infrared light is not absorbed by oil-based dye black ballpoint pen ink. For this reason, when a letter, which is written using an oil-based dye black ballpoint pen, is obliterated with an oil-based nigrosine dye black marking pen, the letter is not detected in 0.7-1.0 μm wavelength region. In the present report we describe the decipherment of obliterated writings by middle infrared light (2.5-14 μm wavelength). In a preliminary measurement using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, we found that the absorption spectra of all oil-based dye black ballpoint pen ink had a specific peak of 1585 cm−1, and that the spectra of any oil-based nigrosine dye black marking-pen ink did not have the peak at 1585 cm−1. For the preparation of simulated samples of obliterated writing on a piece of PPC paper, a Japanese character [よ] was written using an oil-based dye black ballpoint pen and the character was obliterated using an oil-based nigrosine dye black marking-pen. The obliterated writing was measured by the FTIR-ATR method. The obliterated writing could be deciphered by mapping the peak area at 1585 cm−1. As a result of this experiment， we conclude that the FTIR-ATR mapping with the middle infrared light will be useful to decipher obliterated writings.
OC-Hemocatch, an immunochromatographic test device for fecal occult blood, has been used for the forensic identification of human blood. False-positive and false-negative effects by detergents and disinfectants on detection of human blood using OC-Hemocatch were investigated in this study. Dishwashing and laundry detergents showed no false-positive but false-negative results. Four in 8 disinfectants showed false-positive results, and 3 in the other 4 disinfectants inhibited the detection of human blood. Cationic and anionic surfactants showed false-positive results, but non-ionic and amphoteric surfactants did not, suggesting that the antibody-conjugated blue latex particles were aggregated electrically by cations or anions and caught nonspecifically onto the detection line. False-negative results might be caused by denaturation or degradation of hemoglobin by the comtaminants.
If the suspect left his/her fingerprints at a crime scene, depending on the types of crimes, i.e. whether it was a crime by the resident of the scene, crime by the person who had been in the scene, or crime by the person who discovered the crime, etc., the time when they were impressed often becomes a point of issue in the trial. Although some data on the change in the quality of fingerprints over time were already reported, they were based only on those that were over a short period of time. The change of the quality of fingerprints varies by individual differences, conditions when they were impressed, types of objects on which fingerprints were impressed, and conditions of places where fingerprints were kept. In this report, we conducted the experiment on the change of quality of fingerprints over a long period of time (seven years ago from now, and to be continued for another three years). The data of aging impressed fingerprints will contribute to scientific investigation.
We established a database system for amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) tablets operated on Microsoft Access software. The database has 34 fields composed of information on pictures, shapes, colors, logo marks, weight, diameter, thickness, contents, etc. The ATS tablet information registered in each prefectural police headquarters are accumulated in the host database of the National Police Agency (NPA) via an intra-net network. The update data, being confirmed by the NPA, is supplied via intra-net or compact disk-read only media (CD-ROM). This information would lead to rapid identification of ATS tablets in forensic laboratories. In addition, accumulation of data would be useful not only for the investigation relating to seizures but also for identification of trafficking routes and sources of supply.
1-Benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine, newly controlled as narcotics in Japan on 2003, and their analogues were analyzed. The analytical data with color test, thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) are presented. The BZP-like compounds were less sensitive to Simon's reagent than amphetamine type stimulants on spot plates. Using on-site screening kit based on Simon's test (X-Checker®), BZP indicated almost the same result as methamphetamine. For TLC, the solvent system, methanol −25% aqueous ammonia (100 : 1.5), was the best among the systems examined. Iodoplatinate reagent was the most sensitive one to detect BZP. The IR spectra showed sufficient differences to make identification. Trimethylsilylation was the most appropriate choice for the GC/MS analysis of BZP-like compounds in terms of the peak shapes, separation and stability (using a J&W DB-5MS column). In LC/MS analysis, the gradient elution (10 mM formic acid and acetonitrile) using a Waters Symmetry Shield C18 column achieved discrimination of isomers except for 1-(2-fluorophenyl)piperazine and 1-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazine. The cone voltage of 30 V was recommended for the LC/MS screening. The information would be useful for identification of piperazines in confiscated powders, liquids or tablets.