The present article describes the intentions behind and the objectives of the current special issue. The backgrounds against which the need for computer literacy education at the freshmen level has been keenly perceived in the early 1990s' Japan are explained and the problems in installing the curriculum for it are exposed and discussed. The reports from the Japanese Information Processing Society's task force on computer pedagogy are scrutinized. Further problems are briefly discussed and the structure of the current special issue is stated.
Most of students, who belong a university of science and engineering, learn a technical computer training or Computer Science. Recently, not only students in school of liberal arts but also undergraduates take a course related to a computer training. The spread of Computational education is very important to a modern networked society. But it causes serious administrative and budgetary problems. We show a historical review of computer training and discuss the problems.
Personal computers or workstations are used widely in Japan. Many students need to be educated now to use computers. The importance of computer literacy is emphasized these days. To obtain computer literacy, students must not only depend on school lessons but make an effort to practice using a computer outside the curriculum. It is necessary to furnish the students with many computers so they can use them freely. In this paper, we discussed four points of computer education:(1)coping with the questions and or troubles of the users, (2)safeguarding the system, (3)improving the educational technique of teachers, and(4)motivating the students. This paper contains our primary research of these four points from our studies in site at Educational Center for Information Processing, Osaka University.
This paper describes the current status of introductory course for information processing in Keio University at Shonan Fujisawa Campus. This campus started two new schools in 1990, and all the freshmen are requested to take an introductory course for information processing. The first part of this course gives the computer literacy including text editing, network utilities and document processing as the basis for the whole campus life, and the second part gives the introductory programming. After finishing the introductory course, the students can choose several advanced courses for varieties of computer related topics like system programming, network programming, computer art, computer music, data processing, logic programming and so on. This campus has a much advanced network system, and it can support these courses of the information processing as well as the ordinal campus life of the students.
Education on computing has become a certain key subject of“gliberal arts”.Everybody talk about its importance without taking part of it by themselves, leaving it on the shoulders of“experts”so called. Who might be, then, true experts for it? Could computer scientists be ones as they are currently supposed to? Probably not. All the university teachers must collaborate to make it a genuine part of liberal arts since computing is the very challenge to our intellectual activity itself, let alone to our daily life. Reporting on the current situation in Waseda University, the author discusses what should be done for tomorrow.
In this paper, we propose a new latent trait theory, which aims to explain reading process of a “IIiraganna”word. Because this mathematical model reflects actual psychological process, we believe that this model can yield more precise estimation of subjects' characteristics. Moreover, the item parameters and the index calculated by these parameters are used to discribe the items. We applied this model and estimation procedure(nonlinear LSQ method)to a real data, and showed this model has a good fit to the data and yielded reliable estimates of the ability parameters and item parameters.
In this paper we develop an estimation procedure for Shiba(1979)'s general item response model. This procedure consists of two steps;(1)item parameters are estimated with a marginal maximum likelihood method assuming both a standard normal distribution on individual location(or ability)parameters and a standard x-distribution on individual discriminating parameters, and then(2)individual parameters are obtained using a Bayesian modal estimation procedure. Also a test information function for this model is proposed. The method is applied to real data in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the method and show the example of an item parameter equating for the model.
A new probabilistic unfolding model is developed to analyze semantic space. This model operates on rating data of adjectives, which are not paired. Distance d is defined to be r-metric and related to rating probability p by p=exp(-cdβ). An example of analysis by this method shows good fit of the model to the data, which promises further investigation and development of the proposed method.
We conducted a survey on what high school teachers think should be done to improve the university entrance examination. The teachers were asked to express freely their ideas on the issue. Two rators coded the contents of 1, 332 free description answers into 91 categories in order to analyze them statistically. The number of answers with each category was counted and the major ideas were reported. Some of the major findings are as follows.(1)There are some ideas which were stated by many teachers and yet there are hardly any opposite ideas to them.(2)Some teachers showed opposite ideas to some other teachers' concerning six different topics on the university entrance examination.(3)The 0-1 type data matrix analyzed by dual scaling produced multiple dimensions major three of which were interpreted. The results suggested that each idea of improvement has both positive and negative aspects. We further discussed what should be taken into consideration to analyze free description answers.