Two experiments were conducted to investigate searcher's behavioral strategies in a two-person, zero-sum game called a search evasion game. Two boxes with the detection probabilities being identical were used and represented by two series of keys. In the Exp. I, four plays in which the detection probability was0.2, 0.4, 0.6and0.8 respectively were performed by37female college students. The results showed that the mean value of the trial numbers was greater than that of the game except for the cases where the probability of0.4was given. Luce's β model which is used in a two-choice problem was also applied to examine the correspondence between β-value and escape probability. The detection probability0.6resulted in higher estimation and that of0.4, lower estimation. In the Exp. II, 50plays were performed in succession by27female college students under the detection probability of0.4. Conditional entropy was calculated by selecting the plays which took five trials. In order to get stationarity, the plays were selected from the31st play to the50th play. The results showed that two or three succesive preceding trials influenced the player's later strategy, but the effect on the player's following strategy by one preceding trial was recognized to be negligible. This concludes that the distribution of search efforts was optimum at the time when a play was over, whereas the distrubtion in process of the play was not optimum.
Delimiting regions is one of the fundamental problems in the regional investigation. Traditionally, regions have been delimited by two different viewpoints; one is by the uniformity of areas and another is by the functional connection among areas. Some powerful multivariate techniques have been developed for the analysis of both types of regions. In this paper, using Interpretive Structural Modeling(ISM)technique, the authors suggest a new systems approach to dynamic regional definition, and test empirically from data of interregional commodity trade in the U. S. The result is quite satisfactory. This fact shows that ISM is greatly effective as a classification technique for handling interractive pattern data.
This paper critically reviews some of the basic assumptions in the traditional theory of social choice, namely, the interpersonal independence and invariance of individual preferences, and the independence from irrelevant alternatives in the choice set. A new approach is proposed which would violate these assumptions but, rather, assumes the situation dependency of preferences in social decision. Experiments were done to investigate people's intuitive principles for “desirable concessions” approaching to the mutual agreement, where the situation-dependency was assumed to be taken into account. Analyzing subjects' judgements for “desirable steps” of concessions, three underlying principles were found to be mostly sufficient for describing their divergent responses:That is, they adopted either an efficiency-oriented principle, and equity-oriented principle, or a rank-position-oriented principle, each of which reflects a different philosopy for the desirability of social concession processes and group decision outcomes. Implications of these principles in both theory and practice are also discussed.