Mineral (K, P, Mg, S, Si, Fe, Ca, Mn, Na, Co, Ni) contents of rice grains used for sake brewing were analysed. The contents of Co and Ni were very low ( < 0.1ppm) even in brown rice grains. Gohyakumangoku, Okuhomare, and Hyogokitanishiki showed higher contents of K, P and Mg in rice grains than other varieties. Yamadanishiki showed the lowest content of S among varieties used in this study, and it showed lower contents of Fe and S than those Nipponbare even cultivated in the same field. As the milling ratio was lower, the contents of K, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Si decreased rapidly from the brown rice to 70% of the milling ratio, but those did not change from 70% to 30% of the milling ratio. On the other hand, the content of S decreased linearly from brown rice to 30% of the milling ratio. There were no significant differences in mineral concentrations between white core rice grains and non-white core rice grains in Yamadanishiki and Gohyakumangoku, as the milling ratio was lower. Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) micrograph observation showed P, K, and Mg distributed abundantly in the aleurone layer of rice grains and Si distributed abundantly in the pericarp of rice grains.
Utilization of the distillery waste of shochu, a Japanese distilled alcohol beverage, is of significant concern in Japan, since an enormous amount of distillery waste is produced during the manufacturing of shochu. On the contrary, sphingolipids are key substances for augmenting the moisture effect of cosmetics and preventing of cancers by oral intake. We therefore investigated the quantity and source of sphingolipids in the distillery waste of shochu. Results by TLC analysis showed migrating spots similar to those of steryl glucoside and cerebrosides amide-linked to hydroxylated fatty acids were identified in dried samples of the shochu distillery waste. By semi-quantitative analysis, cerebrosides were contained at 2.2 mg to 3.3 mg per 1 g of the dried shochu distillery waste. By analyzing the sphingolipids contained in barley, barley fermented with Aspergillus kawachii, Aspergillus kawachii, and shochu yeast incubated in artificial media, it was confirmed that sphingolipids contained in the shochu distillery waste are mainly derived from Aspergillus kawachii. This is the first report of the detection and semi-quantitative analysis of sphingolipids in shochu distillery waste.
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